Orange and red rays

Sunlight, Low Level Laser Therapy and Photobiomodulation

Sunlight, Low Level Laser Therapy and Photobiomodulation

I first became interested in the healing qualities of light about 5 years ago after reading From PMS to Menopause: Female Hormones in Context by Ray Peat. The obvious connotations to improved health during summer compared to a so- called Seasonal Affective Disorder or SAD was well known. The mechanics were intriguing but not limited to the obvious features of Ultra Violet light and the production of Vitamin D.

UV has been known to be problematic and excess, increases ageing of the skin but the mechanisms and links to cancer are misunderstood. An incomplete overview of other potential mechanisms that might promote mutogenic or cancerous processes are often left out of the explanation. The business of sunblock marketing, like many other fear mongering industries, continue to warn us of too much sunlight, yet often we often lack the right amount. An old blog highlights some points relating to this. The qualities of the healing properties of light are often glossed over instead of promoting the optimal rays of the sun..

The light which penetrates deeply into our tissues (mainly orange and red light) is able to improve the efficiency of energy production, and to suppress the toxic free-radicals that are always being formed in cells. “

Consideration of the healing properties of certain wavelengths of light is a must for health, metabolic and rehabilitation promotion. The useOrange and red rays of light therapy for improving pain, healing and many other issues has been used for decades. In 1903 a Nobel science prize was awarded to Niels Finsen for ultraviolet-phototherapy.

Low Level Laser Therapy and Photobiomodulation

The use of light therapy for improving pain, healing and many other issues has been used for decades. In 1903 a Nobel science prize was awarded to Niels Finsen for ultraviolet-phototherapy.

Here are just some of the issues that have seen great improvement using LLLT and Photobiomodulation.

  • Pain reduction
  • Improved hormone function
  • Swelling reduction
  • Increased healing
  • Neurological issues
  • Improved cellular function
  • Promote recovery from exercise
  • Rehabilitation of injuries
  • Decreased inflammation
  • Improved hair follicle stimulation

The use of infra red heat lamps have been used for decades and often been recommended in rehabilitation or in the beauty world as an anti-aging protocol. I have used heat lamps with myself and clients for several years but it is clear that many gains can be had without the use of heat and just focusing on the use of light alone.

There are many factors that can make the use of light more effective and these illumination parameters include:

  • Wavelength
  • Fluence
  • Power density
  • Pulse structure
  • Timing

For many, even finding these variables may prove a difficult task. In fact even using the word Photobiomodulation becomes problematic! I think the exposure of bright light during the day through incandescent or LED lights is important to offset the lack of natural daylight and healing properties of various waveforms, (unless of course you do work or spend much of your day outside) with the use of red light after sunset to decrease impact to circadian rhythm.

One of the most prevalent mechanisms that appears to offer an explanation as to LLLT’s effectiveness is by increasing cytochrome c oxidase which improves mitochondrial function, increasing cell efficiency and function and improving energy production.

The wavelength of 600-950nm or optical window is a general guideline and appears to be where most of the research and the effects of LLLT has been conducted on. The toxinless website listed below has some great recommendations for the use of light and ideal set ups, which are very cheap to set up at home.

The use of LLLT for improving hormones and in particular thyroid function has gained a greater following of late. It’s worth noting, that in some studies which can be found on Valtsu’s website (a great resource for thyroid) , the use of LLLT improved thyroid function without the need for thyroid medication. Additional studies corroborate the effectiveness in reducing the need for thyroid medication and addressing autoimmune thyroiditis.  Therefore I think the use of LLLT for improving energy, digestion, mood and sleep is validated.


Peat, R. From PMS to Menopause : Female Hormones in Context. 1997.

Online resources:






Why baby walkers are a disaster for the growing child.

Why baby walkers are a disaster for the growing child.

It was the fourth client in the space of two weeks that prompted me to write this quick blog. Four teenagers all aged 14 with pain and compromised movement. Where did it all start? How does this happen? The parents enquire, looking for a definitive reason.  walker-clipart-baby_in_walker

As with all aetiologies of pain and movement dysfunction it can be hard to determine exactly what drives an individual’s problems. But when you can observe the way that a young person breathes you can, in most cases determine whether they have been placed in a baby walker, without any other form of assessment.

A rough overview would reveal that, within the first 9 months of movement and prior to the process of standing (verticalisation) there are many key stages of development that need to occur.

These include.

  • Lifting the head
  • Stabilising the back line between neck, chest and pelvis
  • Rotation via rolling
  • Quadra pedal or four point stance
  • Crawling and cross patterning of shoulder to hip.

So why is it that the baby walker is such a problem?

Consider the actions that a baby needs to achieve before it stands, let alone walks. Crawling develops hip, trunk and shoulder musculature. Due to the reciprocal relationship between the neck and the lower back, which counter rotates to the direction of the thoracic spine, optimal conditioning of reflexes, muscles, tendons and ligaments should occur. If a child is placed into a walker, the challenge is then geared towards locomotion and gait, rather than rolling and crawling. This is where the problems start and it presents several issues to consider.

  1. The ability to stabilise using the diaphragm is decreased due to in an early standing position, that is not conditioned enough from crawling. (observation can be made by the upper breathing pattern, using chest and neck muscles)
  2. The lower leg muscles are stressed to create movement and in particular the calve muscles are strengthened and may contribute to excessively to actions such as hip and knee flexion and extension (as well as many other movements. (look for those over developed calve muscles)
  3. The lack of rotation created by a lack of motion in the spine, decreases essential loading of the spinal ligaments, which will decrease recruitment of the muscles needed for optimal gait. (you can see poor movement and stability from the most basic movements)

Another insult added into the equation is the constant use of flip-flops. This previous blog breaks down why flip-flops are disastrous for athletic and day-to-day performance.

To develop optimal movement that progresses throughout childhood into adult life, rolling, crawling and walking patterns should not be supported with baby walkers or bouncers. It might be hard to believe but the walker does play a significant part to why younger clients present with pain and movement issues. There’s no doubt that technology has significant benefits it many aspects of life. But when it comes to human movement, the brain already has it optimised, you just need to let it of its own thing.

Thankfully with a little work, the problems can be unravelled but don’t get me started on the use of iPads and mobile phones!!


Kobesova, A., Kolar, P., Developmental kinesiology: Three levels of motor control in the assessment and treatment of the motor system, Journal of Bodywork & Movement Therapies (2013),

Kolar, P. et al. Postural Function of the Diaphragm in Persons With and Without Chronic Low Back Pain. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2012;42(4):352-


Appreciating surroundings

Are you using nature to regenerate?

The more clients that I see, I realise that some are very in touch with their bodies and some have no idea what is going on with it. The same rationale can be applied to those who feel the immediate value of being immersed in nature and others who are blissfully unaware of the subject matter. I often remember the change that my body used to experience as I drove out of London towards the Yorkshire Dales; as I edged past the M25 into the countryside and the journey terminated in a swathe of greenery and granite rock, the stress meter had dialled down to a zero.


So why is nature important to human body? The escalation of urbanised environments is ensuring that humans are packed into industrialised, colour lacking, banal developments, that do little to stimulate the eye and increased tension with hustle and close knit streets that people rush to and from work. This dense packing of people also accumulates a large amount of industrial pollutants, be it Benzene from car fuel, Wi-Fi (of which there is an increasing amount of literature to support it’s negative effects to hormone and cellular function) and many other factors that test the body to its limits.

There is increasing research that suggests that urbanisation is a prominent factor in rumination/negative thinking and decreasing mental health. To deal with managing aspects of mental health, exercise is often touted to be helpful as a distraction hypothesis and I don’t dispute the effectiveness of exercise training to help in this situation. A distraction is positive and exercising is essential for good health. However, how many people actually use, quiet appreciation in exercise to regenerate? We often so concerned with pushing ourselves in professional life that exercise often becomes wrapped up in the same goal setting schedules that people religiously stick to. Walking, boating, hiking and taking time to appreciate nature, take in the colours, slowly breathe in the less polluted air, listen to the birds sing, or simply sit on the beach and absorb the endless horizon of water. To often we don’t stop to take in these natural beauties as we are trying to beat those personal bests.

Studies are showing that walking for 90 minutes in a natural environment fares much better than walking in urban settings; The effects showing additional decreases in negative thinking and activity of the brain. I am a firm believer that running and cycling in built up areas may make you fitter but probably less healthier. Increased oxidation of pollutants in urbanised areas, contribute to health issues and mortality rates are on the rise. Training efficiently and smart would warrant that we should aim to exercise less in this manner. Walking in green spaces and utilising the stress decreasing mechanisms of nature, may have more impact to your health than running or cycling on by without appreciating the spaces surrounding you.

Life seems to be whizzing by faster than ever, isn’t it time we slowed down to appreciate it more? Train for strength, walk for health?


skin copy

Skin deep? The role of skin in motor control and dysfunction.

Many people are aware that dysfunction can occur from many different areas. Scar tissue, joint and ligament/tendon receptors, muscle fibres and many more factors contribute to pain and movement issues. The role of skin in providing feedback is not so prevalent in literature or discussed as a source of a client’s motor control, pain or dysfunction issues.

Whilst muscle and joint receptors are well known as proprioceptors, the skin contains a large amount of feedback from exteroreceptors originally proposed by Sherrington. These include:

Meissner – vibrationskin copy

Pacinian- vibration

Ruffini – pressure response

Krause – pressure in mucosal tissues

Merkel – pressure/touch to skin

Free nerve endings – nociceptive/pain stimulation

The skin provides feedback from external stimulus, adjusting steps and movement. Damage to the skin can be one of the many areas that clients often forget and for that matter, surgeries such as appendectomies, c –sections and kidney removal are just a few of the ‘small’ procedures that have not been mentioned in an initial session.

Deep abrasions on young tissue, which heal and visually, present little to see on an adult body, are common. A recent finding with a client was a certain amount of dysfunction between a deep unseen scar from falling from a bike 20 years ago playing havoc with the scar tissue and stability of   the same knee from a later ACL reconstruction. Using techniques such as PDTR (proprioceptive deep tendon reflex) and NKT (neuro kinetic therapy) it is possible to assess the impact of scars, seen or unseen on stability and motor control of muscle and ligamentous tissue.

Another common issue is the role of deep coloured tattoos and their impact on surrounding muscle tissue via skin receptor dysfunction. Usually dysfunction between quick pin tracts (Neospinalthalmic tracts) and slower pain (Paleospinalthalamic tracts) are prevalent with tattoos but depending on depth and other factors, dysfunction can present via the receptors suggested above.

Tattoos can create dysfunction in underlying and other tissues

Tattoos can create dysfunction in underlying and other tissues


Addressing muscular dysfunction can be useful and effective as part of the treatment but in addition to assessment of joint, ligament, tendon and pain pathways; assessment of the skin and its associated receptors should be an integral part of the client’s treatment.



Palomar, J. Proprioceptive Deep Tendon Reflex. Course manual.

Purves D, Augustine GJ, Fitzpatrick D, et al. Neuroscience 2nd edition.

Sinauer Associates 2001.

superficial  back line

Bin the flip-flops for better performance

I have worked with thousands of clients over the years and one of the most consistent links that I can say with certainty exists, is the link between biomechanical dysfunction from flip flop wearing. You can also lump tight shoes, high heels and other rogue foot wear that simply do not allow the feet to function correctly in that description.

What I am not saying is that you can never wear those shoes that you hold so dear to your heart again. What I am saying is; that if you are engaged in an exercise regime, be it professional or someone who wants to get the best from your training regime, without injury or decreases in performance. Ditching those pesky flip-flops and other gait restrictors are probably a good idea.

If you want to wear them, then doing some kind of releases that address your own personal restrictions is key. This flip-flop release is very useful but not complete.

With the twenty-six bones, thirty-three joints and over one hundred muscles and ligaments, each person demonstrates their personal movement and dysfunction in slightly different ways.

I can tell straight away, when a client walks in whether they wear flip-flops, tight work shoes or over used high heels. So what are the common issues that I see?

  • Inability to optimally recruit the hip and thigh (glutes/hip flexors/quads/hamstrings) muscles.
  • Restriction in mobility/stability to the neck.
  • Poor core function due to overuse of the back muscles.
  • Calf strain and usually a decrease in shin muscle contracture
  • Instability of the big toe-essential for push off in gait
  • Permanent contraction of the toes

There are others and many clients often look at me like a madman as I say that their problems are coming from their footwear. Usually the improvement in function and decrease in pain relatively quickly is enough to ensure their compliance to restricting problematic footwear and addressing their muscular problems with some foot TLC homework.

From a muscular and myofascial line Myers proposition of the structural connectivity via superficial  back line
the superficial back line can show us how muscular and ligamentous issues in the feet might affect the whole line where the muscles are continuous with the cranial fascia. Addressing the foot has often decreased pain and increased mobility in the neck in many clients.

A long-standing client of mine who is a competitive swimmer was reminded of the implications of flip-flop wearing and performance. Originally a back pain client that was cleared, he was complaining of a lack of ability to complete a six beat stroke with his feet. After clearing the distortion of the peripheral and central nervous system and restoring optimal muscle function (Using NKT or Neuro Kinetic Therapy and Proprioceptive Deep Tendon Reflex/PDTR), he reported a return of the function that night.

Whether exercising or just for moving efficiently you can still wear these shoes but just be aware that there is a cost. To remove the dysfunction you will need to do corrective work and more homework and lets be honest for those that do exercise, correctives are adistraction from the main event. More mobility and stability work? Come on!

Well if you just treated those feet with more respect you wouldn’t need too.


Are probiotics essential for optimal gut health?

Probiotics are often being recommended to deal with a variety of digestive health complaints today. I have been intrigued for many years of the role of the digestive system; it’s functions and ultimately how bacteria can contribute to improved or decreased health. Recently, the last two newsletters from Ray Peat PhD have quoted studies, where animals that were born into sterile environments had improved metabolic rates. He also alluded to the increased lifespan of animals with higher metabolic rate in his book, Generative Energy.

Probiotics have been touted for many years to assist with optimal gut function but like many products these days have swiftly been elevated to cult status, with their miraculous, cure all capacity suggested by those that sell them. But what does the science say? A summary of The Cochrane database provides plenty of research that shows that probiotics do have a positive impact in the short term, decreasing acute diarrheal like symptoms; however it’s impact on issues such as IBS remain inconclusive and controversial.

The gut flora and microbial mass is suggested to weigh up to 7kgs, second only in weight to the skin as the largest mass found in the human body. There exist over four hundred different species of bacteria with a predominance of anaerobic bacteria found mostly in the lower bowel. The problem with anaerobic bacteria is that the by-product of these species is the production of lactic acid and other metabolites that are damaging to cellular function.

Bacteria are often classified as pathogenic or disease causing or ‘friendly’ whose role can assist in production of Vitamin K2, biotin and B vitamins amongst other compounds. Bacteria can also increase the production of nitric oxide and endotoxin ( a compound well known to disrupt the mucosal barrier and enzymatic process of the bowel) is known to increase it further. An intriguing question would be whether an increase of certain bacteria predominate when we have a lower intake of certain foods

It is clear that metabolites from all bacteria do pose a challenge to cellular function and certainly when there is an overgrowth or dysbiosis they produce increased compounds that can create health issues dependant on the host’s immune and metabolic status. Probiotics like other supplements are often recommended long term but even the so-called friendly bacteria have the capacity to cause metabolic disturbances. Some species of lactobacilli in excess, cause a condition called D-Lactate acidosis, which disrupts metabolism and has significant impact on mood, digestion and energy. I can recall a three-year-old client who presented with anger and constipation ( 1 bowel movement per week) whose mother thought she was doing the right thing by feeding plenty of fermented foods and yoghurts with natural bacteria. Within a week of removing these foods the issues had stopped.

Chis Masterjohn PhD suggests, ‘Not every fermented food is good for every person, and some people don’t tolerate fermented foods well at all. I think this is largely mediated by the biogenic amine content.’

A common diagnosis clients have been told is one of fructose or carbohydrate malabsorption. When carbohydrate in the diet is high in the absence of a healthy bowel this may be an issue. However if Lactobacillus levels have not been checked, we cannot rule out the possibility of fermentation of carbohydrate due to the action of increased Lactobacilli.

E.E. Metchnikoff’s view that disease starts in the colon is a widely accepted statement. Reducing the amount of bacterial agents in the bowel and increasing protective factors such as decreased adrenalin and improved thyroid function can complete elevating the biological status of a person. A stressed digestive system that does fails to produce adequate stomach acid (Achlorhydria or hypochlorhydria) often increases the amount of bacteria in the lumen of the bowel. Partially undigested food accumulates and elevates lipopolysaccharides from increased endotoxin, damaging the bowel. An increase in adrenaline and decreased thyroid hormone can contribute to decreased stomach acid production via stress pathways. Helicobacter pylori, bacteria that buries into the stomach wall may also contribute to this issue.

High protein diets have the capacity to increase bacterial action in the bowel and a metabolite of tryptophan degradation is indole. This increases ammonia and is problematic to the function of the bowel. This is often the reason for practitioners often suggesting an alkalinising type of diet. Alkaline environments pose just as much a problem as acidic environments. To decrease the bacterial actions of tryptophan, increasing the amount of gelatin like substances may be more beneficial than trying to restrict protein. The amino acids glycine, arginine and proline, found in gelatin do not have the carcinogenic properties associated with tryptophan, which is high when consuming muscle meats alone. Metchnikoff’s theory of putrefactive dysbiosis  would fit better here but fermentive dysbiosis of grains and carbohydrates is prevalent in the poor performing bowel also.

Whilst antibiotics have gotten a bad rep over the last twenty years there can still be much use for them especially when there are stubborn gastrointestinal infections. Antibiotics seems to also work well in reducing the impact of endotoxemia

Testing the bowel can be completed with a CDSA (comprehensive stool analysis) or to accurately assess metabolite an organic acid urine analysis. These tests often cost £250-400 and present a considerable expense to clients. I personally think these tests should be completed after you have tried to optimise the bowel with optimal foods that digest well and support hormonal function. A caveat to that would be, when a client presents with parasitic infections or autoimmune type systems that may need further investigation

To summarise, I think probiotics can be useful in the short term to people with acute problems, primarily due to restricting proliferation of problematic bacteria but in many cases long term use is unwarranted and may even contribute to health issues.



  1. Lord, R.S and Bralley, J.A. Laboratory Evaluations for Integrative and Functional Medicine. Metametrix Institute. 2nd 2008.
  2. Peat, R. Generative Energy. Restoring the Wholeness of Life. 1994.
  3. Chris Masterjohns Blog
  4. .;jsessionid=5315A28A4390280DD5D4257508AD7AC0.f04t02
  6. Ray Peat Newsletters: Directing Epigenetic Adaptation/Imprinting and Aging





Estrogen and Progesterone

For the general public there is often no real need to understand what hormones are or what they do, unless faced with specific problems related to them. As hormones are affected increasingly by our environment, which includes: Food, air, water, physical and psychological stress, it seems that a basic understanding of problematic hormones can be helpful for maintaining or improving health.

Before I attempt to give a brief overview of a complex subject, here are a few terms to be aware of, mainly related to female function.

Follicular phase- first 14 days of cycle to ovulation and increased production of estrogen, primarily E1

LH- Luteal phase, last 14 days, corpus luteum, which increases progesterone

Progesterone- Hormone of gestation, bone formation, anti clotting concerned with cell differentiation.

E1-E2-E3 – Estrogen classifications of Estrone, Estradiol and Estriol. Estrogen promotes growth and becomes problematic in the face of increased cellular division and changes or mutations.

Xenoestrogens – synthetic estrogen like compounds found in plastics, contraceptives, fuel and industrial waste. These have the capacity to increase estrogen levels in men, compounding issues related to testosterone function.

Progestin- synthetic progesterone. Lacking in the benefits of natural progesterone and increases unwanted symptoms.


Estrogen’s primary role is one of growth. It is used to stimulate growth of tissue, especially so in the endometrium. During the follicular phase estradiol increases and just before ovulation starts to decrease. Progesterone’s protective effects are enhanced via increased production of the corpus luteum.

Problems with excess estrogen have increased due to changes in diet, increased exposure to environmental pollutants and other factors that are not offset by increased production of progesterone. Below are just some of the actions of both estrogen and progesterone.

Effects of Estrogen Effects of Progesterone
·      Breast stimulation·      Endometrial proliferation

·      Increased body fat

·      Salt/ fluid retention

·      Clotting

·      Depression

·      Headaches

·      Decreased libido

·      Impairment of blood sugar

·      Reduced oxygen

·      Risk of breast cancer

·      Osteoporosis

·      Decreased thyroid

·      Increases CV issues.

·      Anti tumour effects·      Supportive to fertility

·      Sedative effects

·      Improves blood sugar

·     Decreases  Ovarian cysts

·      Menopausal flushing

·      Removal of facial hair

·      Decreased Menstrual cramping

·      Improved auto-immune

·      Hormonal balance

·      Anti -Stress

·     Decreased arthritis

·      Promotes sleep

·      Thickens hair on head




Balancing blood sugar levels, particularly an issue during pre-menses, can be achieved with Progesterone. Hypoglycaemia is often present (especially so when engaged in exercise, low carbohydrate or calorie consumption) and particularly when oxidative damage occurs to cellular function, oxygen use is decreased and therefore a reliance on glycolysis, a sugar using energy system, which creates an abundance of lactic acid, occurs. Elevated levels of lactic acid are problematic, not only to cellular function but are also inefficient means of energy production. It’s transportation and conversion back to glycogen requires much more energy than it produces. Progesterone protects against estrogen’s anti-oxygen effects.

Progesterone is non-toxic even at elevated levels, however anaesthesia and euphoria has been recorded, along with changes to the menstrual cycle which can be noted as mainly positive. Symptoms related to PMS have often disappeared and its use is recommended only between ovulation and menstruation. Estrogen/progesterone balance can be achieved by supplementation, however diet can help to facilitate the change and serve to maintain the gains achieved with progesterone supplementation. In many cases decreased thyroid allows for excess estrogen in the body, via mechanisms of decreased energy to detoxify, which include liver and digestion mechanisms. The reverse can also be true due to increased estrogen decreasing thyroid function

Excess stress can be the cause of decreased progesterone and increased estrogen’s, increased cortisol and decreased thyroid. The use of adequate protein within the diet and carbohydrates will ensure that thyroid is provided efficiently. Daily sunshine helps to promote optimal progesterone conversion, in addition to supplementation and those who live in areas with less sunlight should also consider progesterone supplementation.

During pregnancy, progesterone production can be one hundred times more than the amount seen during the premenstrual phase. A lack of progesterone during pregnancy has been associated with toxaemia. Symptoms include high blood pressure, excessive weight gain, oedema (fluid retention) and protein loss in the urine. If excess progesterone is available, the mother will simply use it, therefore an excess of progesterone would be preferred to a deficit and the likelihood of toxaemia induced by too little progesterone. Progestins seem to make many unwanted symptoms much worse

It is clear that decreasing exposure to environmental pollutants is helpful to lowering xenoestrogenic load. Foods that contain natural phytoestrogens can also affect estrogen/progesterone balance and where symptoms exist decreasing foods such as uncooked brassica vegetables, soy, nuts and seeds would be helpful in attempting to restore balance.


Dalton, K The Menstrual Cycle.

Lee, J. Natural Progesterone, Multiple roles of a Remarkable Hormone. BLL Publishing

Peat, R. Nutrition for Women.

Tonilo, P.G. Endogenous estrogens and breast cancer risk: the case for prospective cohort studies. Environ Health Perspect. 1997 Apr;105 Suppl 3:587-92.

Online references:



What is regional interdependence?

What is regional interdependence and why do we need to know more about it?

History is often the most prevalent factor for the exposure to future injuries. Many clients and surprisingly clinicians are often blissfully unaware of the impact of previous injuries on current and future injury scenarios. Here are five key examples of actual clients that I have worked with.

  1. Left sided lower back pain, not resolved with surgery, from 40 year-old scar, left by kidney removal at the age of 1.
  2. Ankle injury causing lower back pain.
  3. Appendectomy scar, decreasing core function, causing lower back pain.
  4. Ear piercing creating shoulder dysfunction on the opposite shoulder.
  5. Hyper –contracted toe muscles creating mobility issues in neck.

Of course there are more, hundreds, perhaps thousands more. For the evidence medicine biased people, I am not about to create theoretical models for you to shoot down with a lack of scientific literature. Although there are increasing studies that support the rationale for regional interdependence. There are also many methods of assessment that create adequate reasoning to show how restriction, lack of stability and dysfunction in one area of the body may have a significant impact on other areas of the body. SFMA (selective functional movement assessment), Gray institute, Anatomy in Motion and many other forms of assessment provide insights to how a lack of mobility and stability at the ankle has an impact on say mechanics of the knee, hip, spine, shoulder and head.

Many practitioners and clinicians have often been taught to view each issue in isolation, which to a degree can be helpful; As local problems can often be responsible for a global issue. Think a scar, such as a C-section, inhibiting core function, increasing dysfunction in the posterior chain not addressed by anterior chain function. But what about when symptoms persist? True, there are many factors that can contribute to pain and dysfunction that simply will not be addressed by massage/trigger points, needles and corrective exercise and I might suggest that some gains may serve as mask to the actual underlying dysfunction.


10264312_699027360144587_8762295179813694115_nYou may have observed the concept of regional interdependence after having a good calf massage. Ever noticed how good your neck feels after having your feet and calf massaged? There’s a clear fascial line between the feet and the neck as proposed by Myers in the superficial back line. There is also literature to support the concept of viscerosomatic pain referrals. This may include pre menstrual issues on back pain or gastro-intestinal dysfunction involved in headaches. To address these dysfunctions truly we need to get to the root cause of the issues. That neck often gets tight again after having those feet massaged as the compensatory muscles are overworking for an underworking area.

If perhaps the calf muscles are overworking due to a lack of function in their antagonistic muscles such as the dorsi-flexors or shin muscles. You may well see the neck tightness dissipate, when this relationship is addressed. Follow up mobility work may also be useful for the neck.

Determining mobility versus stability issues is paramount. A decrease in mobility may come from many sources such as:

  • A lack of stability –( how to determine video)
  • Breathing pattern dysfunction (a stability issue)
  • Biochemical – vitamin D/K2/A/calcium factors
  • Gluten –stiff person syndrome, A tentative link between the consumption of gluten and muscle stiffness.

Here we can see the futile task of mobilising joints via releasing and stretching muscles, when there exists factors that contribute to the lack of mobility, that will not resolve with mobilisations.

It’s important for the patient to bring a complete injury history to the table and for the clinician to assess the impact and hierarchy of all factors. Determining mobility against stability factors, improving motor control and treating via the suggestion of regional interdependence may be more beneficial than simply just treating overworked painful areas.




  1. Cook, G et al. SFMA Course Manual. 2011
  2. Hadjivassiliou M1, Aeschlimann D, Grünewald RA, Sanders DS, Sharrack B, Woodroofe N. GAD antibody-associated neurological illness and its relationship to gluten sensitivity. Acta Neurol Scand. 2011 Mar;123(3):175-80. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0404.2010.01356.x
  3. Myers. T. Anatomy Trains. Elsevier. 2014.
  4. Sueki D. G., Cleland J. A., Wainner R. S. A regional interdependence model of musculoskeletal dysfunction: research, mechanisms, and clinical implications. Journal of Manual and Manipulative Therapy. 2013;21(2):90–102. doi: 10.1179/2042618612y.0000000027

Calcium- Don’t ditch the dairy.

Calcium – don’t ditch the dairy.

Like every nutrient that we have consumed over the last millennia or ten, there are reasons why some foods appear more beneficial than others. Using poor tests like Igg4 sensitivity/allergy analysis many ‘experts’ have convinced us that one of our most potent foods is causing us more harm than good. I am on the bandwagon that as far as my food goes (meat and dairy) grass fed, free range and organic remain a better choice for all concerned. Hormesis can only take us so far when it comes to pesticide and pollutant exposure and the individuality of tolerance and adaptation remains a knife-edge for many.

Don't ditch the dairy

Don’t ditch the dairy

Without getting into the arguments of which type of cows produce what compounds. This topic is merely aimed at why people have issues with calcium uptake and is the problem really a dairy issue?

Many people who have had blood tests are often told to take extra calcium supplements in response to presenting with low serum calcium. However the issue of lowered calcium in the blood may have nothing to do with the amount of calcium that they are ingesting. Here are some potential mechanisms:

• Low levels of vitamin D: Vitamin D is a well-known nutrient/hormone like substance that allows for the adequate uptake of calcium into bones and teeth. amongst many other functions which include immune system function. (This synergistic relationship can be observed in reverse also)
• High phosphorus/phosphate diet. In addition to the added phosphates to foods and crops. Current recommendations suggest increasing portions of grains, beans and peas, which not only contain phosphates but also contain phytates, which can block mineral uptake. Low magnesium is also an issue.
• Increased estrogens and xenoestrogens that increase the stress response and cause calcium to leach from the bones into soft tissues. A decrease in available progesterone can decrease bone density.
• Poor reabsorption factors such as low intake of vitamin K2
• An actual calcium deficiency from low calcium intake
• Excessive exercise which can be due to inadequate calcium and poor carbon dioxide retention.
• Inability to absorb calcium from the digestive tract, low stomach acid levels/hypochlorhydria and damage to villi/intestinal lining, which can be observed in celiac but increasingly with intestinal hyper-permeability, endotoxin and chemical induced damage.
• Decreased blood albumin levels which bind calcium. Digestion and dehydration issues mainly.
• Regulation of PTH or parathyroid hormone.

Osteoporosis is on the rise but its increasing prevalence is not due to low calcium intakes but due to many complex interactions, between stress, pollutants, low sunlight exposure, excessive exercise and nutrient levels. The common reductionist approach is to throw the same nutrient at the problem in larger amounts and hope that this so called ‘deficiency’ is corrected.

When phosphorus increases and there is a lack of vitamin D, PTH increases to balance out the need for increased calcium, which is taken from bones and teeth. In essence much of the calcification of arteries and soft tissues can be attributed to this situation. Some of the signs that can be observed with low calcium levels are:

• Muscle cramps
• Nose bleeds
• Soft fingernails
• Frequent cold sores, rashes
• High or low blood pressure
• Irritability
• Fevers with mild colds

Administering calcium supplements to those with calcium deficiency is much like talking over someone before they have a chance to speak. You only here there initial words but fail to here what they are truly saying.

Much of the marketing and sales of supplements these days are suggestive that our food does not give us the nutrients that we need and that we need to stay plugged in to the rattle of supplement bottles opening daily. When in fact if we just strive to improve digestion and cofactor optimisation this simply isn’t the case. In the case of dairy, when we flippantly talk about super foods, when you look at the nutrients provided from dairy, it is indeed a food with plenty to say for itself, particularly in the situations of growth, stability and anti-stress.


1. Christodoulou, S. , Goula, T., Ververidis, A., and Drosos, G. Vitamin D and Bone Disease. Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 396541,
2. Weatherby, D. Blood Chemistry Analysis. Bear Mountain Publishing. 2002.


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