What is functional hypothyroidism?

You won’t find the term functional hypothyroidism in the medical literature, or at least not yet. Primarily due to clinical hypothyroidism being bound to a rigid assessment usually diagnosed by the blood test thyroid stimulating hormone or TSH.

TSH secretion is controlled by synthesis of thyroid releasing hormone or TRH in the supraortic and supraventricular nuclei of the hypothalamus. TRH is transported to the anterior pituitary by the hypothalamo- hypophysial portal system where it stimulates synthesis of TSH. T4, T3 and TRH control the secretion of TSH (Gardner et al., 2011).

TSH production can also be affected by TSH receptor damage, medical drugs, disease states, iodide, blood glucose levels and other circulating hormones TSH may also be affected by environmental pollutants and heavy metals (Llop et al., 2015).  Metabolic disease and increases in Body Mass Index appear to be correlated with an increase in TSH levels (Ruhla et al., 2010).

Often, you will see clear links and studies to key micronutrients such as zinc, selenium, iodine and other important co-factors. These deficiencies can exist demographically but usually in westernised societies, there deficiency can be linked to impaired absorption rates, perhaps linked to digestive dysfunction and other factors.

“Measuring the amount of thyroid in the blood isn’t a good way to evaluate adequacy of thyroid function, since the response of tissues to the hormone can be suppressed (for example, by unsaturated fats) (Peat, R.1999).

 Dietary factors such as unsaturated fatty acids in the diet may potentially be one of the most overlooked factors that supress thyroid function. Other factors such as caloric restriction, stressful environments, over exercising and other factors are some of the others. It’s well known that in certain areas of hormone dysregulation such as menstrual cycle irregularities, oligoamenorrohea (loss of cycle), anovulation (failure to ovulate) and lack of libido and fertility in both men and women,  can be attributed to poor energy intake and environmental factors (Nieuwenhuijsen et al., 2014) (Skakkebæk, 2003). Dietary factors have synergy with hormonal imbalances perpetuating high levels of estrogen.

The functional suppression of thyroid function by unsaturated fats, eating a so-called healthy diet (full of uncooked brassica vegetables, nuts and seeds) orthorexic states and other factors is largely ignored by physicians.

I can say with some certainty, after completing postgraduate studies at university with a number of Doctors, that diet and inhibitory factors of diet rarely get assessed when it comes to assessing energy and thyroid function.

A persistent functional hypothyroid state, induced by unsaturated fats may lead to the pre-diabetic and diabetic states induced by an inability to utilise carbohydrate and the preferential shift to use of fats instead of sugars as suggested in the Randle or glucose fatty acid cycle (Randle, Garland, Hales, & Newsholme, 1963). Increased cortisol, oxidation, decreased carbon dioxide and an increased stress on the oxidative system, could potentially lead to glycolysis and an increase in lactic acid, further increasing damage, stress and further suppression of thyroid function.

Measurement of thyroid blood tests remains inaccurate and problematic without the inclusion of a variety of symptoms and previously accurate assessment, such as basal metabolic rate, body temperature and pulse. The suppression of both thyroid and adequate energy states will always remain.

As the common approach for diagnosing hypothyroidism is having TSH above 4 or 5 mmUL and the preferred treatment is to supplement with synthetic levothyroxine. How much change can you realistically achieve if you fail to address the supressed metabolism induced by diet, an individuals susceptibility to stress and their own environment?

 

References:

Gardner, D. G., Shoback, D. M., Greenspan, F. S. et al .(2011). Greenspan’s Basic and Clinical Endocrinology. McGraw Hill.

Llop, S., Lopez-Espinosa, M. J., Murcia, M., Alvarez-Pedrerol, M., Vioque, J., Aguinagalde, X., … Ballester, F. (2015). Synergism between exposure to mercury and use of iodine supplements on thyroid hormones in pregnant women. Environmental Research, 138, 298–305. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2015.02.026

Nieuwenhuijsen, M. J., Basagana, X., Dadvand, P., Martinez, D., Cirach, M., Beelen, R., & Jacquemin, B. (2014). Air pollution and human fertility rates. Environment International, 70, 9–14. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2014.05.005; 10.1016/j.envint.2014.05.005

Peat, R. (1999). Thyroid Therapies, Confusion and Fraud. Retrieved from www.raypeat.com/articles/articles/thyroid.shtml

Randle, P. J., Garland, P. B., Hales, C. N., & Newsholme, E. A. (1963). The glucose fatty-acid cycle its role in insulin sensitivity and the metabolic disturbances of diabetes mellitus. The Lancet, 281(7285), 785–789. http://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(63)91500-9

Ruhla, S., Weickert, M. O., Arafat, A. M., Osterhoff, M., Isken, F., Spranger, J., … Möhlig, M. (2010). A high normal TSH is associated with the metabolic syndrome. Clinical Endocrinology, 72(5), 696–701. http://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2265.2009.03698.x

Skakkebæk, N. E. (2003). Testicular dysgenesis syndrome. In Hormone Research (Vol. 60, p. 49). http://doi.org/10.1159/000074499

 

An energetic approach to restoring gut function: Part 1.

Let’s kick this blog off with a question as to whether or not an energetic approach to restoring  gut function is useful when compared to over analysis? Let me clarify, that I have had my fair share of success stories with a reduced and diagnostic approach to improving gut health. Just like I have also had my fair share of kickbacks from the laboratory for recommending their tests. At one point I was using nearly 200 stool tests per year and making a little cash on the side. Many of the tests worked in isolating some specific disturbance to their gut bacteria, presence of a parasite or elevation of putrefied fatty acids. A ‘cleansing’ diet was promoted and a few supplements for good measure created some short term change whilst the client was in my care.

But here’s why the long-term approach to that type of assessment and treatment may not be the best response. A standard functional medicine approach  after spending quite a lot of cash on an integrated stool test is using the 4 R approach.

Remove (offending parties)- spend money on supplements

Restore function- spend money on supplements

Re-inoculate – spend money on nice expensive probiotics

Repair gut lining- spend money on supplements

Regurgitate. Ok the 5th one is mine but no supplements needed.

By taking this approach, an important question is not asked of the individual. Why is this person experiencing an overgrowth of bacteria/SIBO, parasitic infection, endotoxin overgrowth, inflammation and degradation of the bowel lining? I like to think that it is not because of the easy kickbacks FM practitioners are getting for the lab tests and supplements they recommend? So what is the persons level of biological energy and immune system function that allows their digestive system to get in such a state. We know there are some usual suspects. Food, stress or alcohol perhaps?

The typical gastrointestinal complaints people came to me with, were bloating, excess gas, constipation or irritated loose stools combined with poor energy. It was Ilya Mechnikov who originally stated that death starts in the bowel or colon and there’s’ certainly many degenerative and inflammatory conditions that appear at the last stop to poopy central. But is the bowel the main driver of this dysfunction? Many of the symptoms that I recalled earlier are also key symptoms of an energetic and perhaps a thyroid dysfunction. So instead of reaching for our drastic 4 R protocol with an expensive poo test lets consider the following.

 The likes of Broda Barnes and Ray Peat have highlighted how a lack of energy, either from a low or inappropriate food intake or a dysfunctional hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-thyroid axis can be evaluated by assessing body temperature and the combination of pulse. Additional information on Thyroid and TSH evaluation can be found here.

Most people are aware that when they get stressed or exercise, blood is shunted away from the digestive system to the periphery and other working tissues. Even the concept of high Adreno-corticotrophic hormone (ACTH), cortico releasing hormone (CRH) and adrenal production of cortisol is becoming common place in work and gym environments alike. These hormones suppress thyroid hormone and the energy compound ATP that provide energy for tissues.

It’s also well known that low energy states create tight painful muscles that are difficult to relax and one might be able to apply that line of thought to the smooth muscle tissues that regulate bowel contractility. Therefore a low energy state that does not allow for adequate energy production will not allow adequate digestion and bowel function to occur. Cold hands and feet can be a symptom of not eating enough carbohydrate and protein.

If the cold hands and feet, low body temperature, fatigue, constipation don’t resolve from eating energy rich meals that contain plenty of fruit and contains little of the foods that promote the bowel irritants histamine and serotonin (nuts, seeds, vegetable oils, grains, gluten free products, beans and pulses). Then, often factors that influence the hormones such as thyroid, estrogen and progesterone may need a deeper consideration.

I drafted a little flow chart that will be helpful for some quick strategies on what might be happening but what I would like to focus on the low energy state that might have its source from a food or hormone factor or perhaps both. Instead of using a strategy like the 4 R approach, these simple questions can help guide you to understanding whether it is the foods that you eat or an energetic factor that could be causing your digestive system to suffer. It’s not a complete algorithm but it does offer some simple solutions that have helped plenty of people resolve digestion and energy issues.

Foot note: I haven’t needed a stool test with a client for over 4 years now following this chart.

 

In part 2 I will elaborate on foods and basic supplements that can be used to resolve most long standing digestive issues and understanding other hormone actions that create digestive discord.

References:

Lokaj, J., & John, C. (2008). [Ilya Ilich Metchnikov and Paul Ehrlich: 1908 Nobel Prize winners for their research on immunity]. Epidemiologie, Mikrobiologie, Imunologie : Casopis Spolecnosti pro Epidemiologii a Mikrobiologii Ceské Lékarské Spolecnosti J.E. Purkyne, 57(4), 119–24. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19069024

Peat, R. (1997). From PMS to Menopause: Female Hormones in context.

Peat, R. (2006). Autonomic Systems. Retrieved from raypeat.com/articles/other/autonomic-systems.shtml

Osteoporosis- could your exercise, nutrition and medical advice be better?

Osteoporosis and bone health, like many other aspects of optimal biology is a product of an organisms inputs and reactions to environmental stimulus. Osteoporosis is a condition like others, where prevention is often easier than the cure but perhaps the cure has been overcomplicated? Osteoporosis is a multifactorial musculoskeletal disease that is usually associated with the ageing process, decreased bone mineral density (BMD) and its tendency to fracture easily.      

It’s clear that a number of factors that can be maintained throughout life to reduce the incidence of Osteoporosis in both men and women. Before we review those and compare with current guidelines, here’s some background info on the subject.

Primary Osteoporosis is the age related decline in men at around 70 and suggested as being a postmenopausal state, induced through the decreased production of estrogen in females. This last point is accepted in medical literature as the main cause of osteoporosis in females but may be severely flawed (more on this point later).

Secondary osteoporosis can be related to the following factors

Hypogonadism – testosterone/estrogen deficiency
Endocrine disease – Cushing’s syndrome, acromegaly, thyrotoxicosis, Addison’s disease and hyperparathyroidism
Dietary or assimilation deficiencies of calcium, vitamin K, vitamin D and other nutrients
Inflammation-rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus and ankylosing spondylitis
Neoplasms- Myleoma, lymphoma and leukaemia
Reduced physical activity
Medical drugs – corticosteroids, antiretroviral, antipsychotic, chemotherapy, hormone therapy, nicotine and excessive alcohol
Family history/genetics
Diabetes

The financial burden from osteoporosis generally, will increase from 98 Million Euros to 121 billion with proportional increases of 27.5 million to approximately 34 million people between the years 2010 to 2025 (Hernlund et al., 2013). Despite these huge burdens there appears to be a lack of well-designed educational programs that are geared at prevention of osteoporosis through non-pharmacological means.

The supplementation of vitamin D and calcium are well documented in osteoporosis strategies but a strategy to avoid these states are diets containing adequate calcium, vitamin A, K, magnesium (and others) adequate sunlight and moderate exercise.

Ok, so there’s a problem, it’s big business and there’s a lot of great info on how to avoid it right? Well no and here are the major points why I believe its not.

Diagnosis

 Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) is the recommended choice for osteoporosis diagnosis, serum calcium, phosphate, creatinine (with GFR) alkaline phosphatase, liver function, 25 OHD, total testosterone, estrogen CBC and 24 urinary calcium excretion are recommended for the interpretation of secondary causes of osteoporosis (Watts et al., 2012).

Hormones

Estrogen loss is touted as the most significant factor in decreasing BMD yet it’s action only retards resorption, or the removal of calcium from bone. Estrogen tends to inhibit the action of osteoclasts which ultimately reduce BMD. It’s the main reason the introduction of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) was considered as the primary treatment until its long-term use was found to induce clotting and cancer in women. So estrogen does not reverse Osteoporosis, it prevents further bone loss.

A variety of studies have suggested little influence of testosterone in males on BMD and that low estradiol levels combined with elevated sex hormone binding globulin appear to increase the loss of BMD (Cauley et al., 2010). A point worth noting from the correlation associated with higher estradiol levels and decreased BMD loss is that all participants in the study were recorded as having increased weight and BMD, which may influence skeletal modelling due to increased bone-loading parameters. Perhaps too much emphasis has been given to the suggestion that estrogen and its primary role of tissue proliferation amongst others, which should follow the course of age related decline?

Progesterone on the other hand has been shown to be a bone trophic or building factor that increases mineralisation of BMD, via osteoblasts (Prior, 1990). Stress increases cortisol and decreases progesterone binding at the receptor, with a preference for the glucocorticoid. Ray Peat (1997) points out that cortisol causes bone loss and its widely accepted that progesterone has an “antiglucocorticoid” action, it is reasonable to think that progesterone should protect against bone loss, and that it is a progesterone deficiency after menopause which is a major factor in the development of osteoporosis.

Thyrotoxicosis has been suggested as a mechanism of bone resorption but this appears inaccurate-  Ray Peat does a much better job at explaining this.

Medical treatment

Bisphosphonates are the first line medical treatment for treating osteoporosis and show modest changes to hip and vertebral BMD over 3 years. There use may come at a risk. Gastro intestinal side effects are well documented and in some the increase of osteonecrosis of the jaw has been observed. In some, the long-term use has been shown not only to increase the rate of fragility fracture but also to inhibit the healing process. It should be noted that adequate calcium and vitamin D in the diet are essential for bisphosphonate effectiveness

 Nutrition

 There tend to be two well-known stances to the fitness industries approach to nutrition. One, the transformation approach, where limiting of nutrients, particularly dairy and carbohydrates and intermittent fasting are the norm. Another, the holistic warrior whose consumption of chia seeds and all things green, raw and limiting of dairy and sugar again,  may be a factor into lowering BMD in later life. Calcium is an essential nutrient for bone health and dairy is indeed a great source of calcium. Here’s an old blog on the subject.

 It’s clear that adequate vitamin D is a nutrient that is important in BMD maintenance. It regulates calcium levels, decreases the production of parathyroid hormone, which is a potent resorption factor of skeletal calcium when calcium or vitamin D are low. Here are the main points that relate to diet.

  • Vitamin D in isolation and particularly high doses increases fracture rates (Janssen, Samson, & Verhaar, 2002)
  • Unless vitamin D is accompanied by adequate calcium, BMD can decrease further.
  • Vitamin K2 can prevent the calcification of soft tissues and help improve blood calcium levels (Masterjohn, 2007)
  • High meat and diets high in pulses and beans can have a negative effect on calcium levels due to their high phosphate levels.
  • Unless you assess other key nutrients like magnesium and the factors discussed above
  • Low diary intake can be associated with poor bone health.
  • The low carbohydrate, raw green and seed eating diet suggested by holistic health practitioners may contribute to lower BMD.

Exercise

Regular exercise has been touted as a significant factor in maintaining muscle mass and increasing BMD. But is the type of exercise that people are doing, increasingly in their younger years, contributing to better or worse outcomes to BMD. For bone to form adequate carbon dioxide (CO2 ) is essential. Some exercise regimes are so challenging, they contribute to excess levels of metabolic acidosis (lactic acid) and passing of CO2 from the body (worth noting that sugar consumption can also help to increase CO2 production) . Perhaps for exercise to be effective it should be light to moderate, with adequate rest periods that don’t mean that the participant is lying in a pool their sweat and vomit.

Walking, strength training with adequate rest, yoga, Pilates and other modes of moderate exercise appear most suitable for modest improvements to bone health but the diet and hormone factors are key.

It’s clear that osteoporosis is in the rise but it can be reversed. But instead of heading advice like cutting out dairy, eating lots of uncooked vegetables and training to complete exhaustion. There are more suitable mechanisms for improving bone health

References:

Cauley, J. A., Ewing, S. K., Taylor, B. C., Fink, H. A., Ensrud, K. E., Bauer, D. C., … Orwoll, E. S. (2010). Sex steroid hormones in older men: longitudinal associations with 4.5-year change in hip bone mineral density–the osteoporotic fractures in men study. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 95(9), 4314–23. http://doi.org/10.1210/jc.2009-2635

Hernlund, E., Svedbom, a, Ivergård, M., Compston, J., Cooper, C., Stenmark, J., … Kanis, J. a. (2013). Osteoporosis in the European Union: medical management, epidemiology and economic burden. Archives of Osteoporosis, 8(1–2), 136. http://doi.org/10.1007/s11657-013-0136-1

Janssen, H. C. J. P., Samson, M. M., & Verhaar, H. J. J. (2002). Vitamin D deficiency, muscle function, and falls in elderly people. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 75(4), 611–5. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11916748

Masterjohn, C. (2007). Vitamin D toxicity redefined: Vitamin K and the molecular mechanism. Medical Hypotheses, 68(5), 1026–1034. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.mehy.2006.09.051

Peat, R. (1999). Thyroid Therapies, Confusion and Fraud. Retrieved from www.raypeat.com/articles/articles/thyroid.shtml

Prior, J. C. (1990). Progesterone as a bone-trophic hormone. Endocrine Reviews, 11(2), 386–398. http://doi.org/10.1210/edrv-11-2-386

Watts, N. B., Adler, R. A., Bilezikian, J. P., Drake, M. T., Eastell, R., Orwoll, E. S., & Finkelstein, J. S. (2012). Osteoporosis in men: an Endocrine Society clinical practice guideline. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 97(6), 1802–1822. http://doi.org/10.1210/jc.2011-3045

Why you really shouldn’t be giving up sugar in the New Year.

It’s that time of year again, the silly season is upon us and plenty of people using inaccurate words such as detox are thrown around like Christmas wrapping paper.

For many, the New Year is associated with dietary restrictions, born out of a period of over consumption from the festivities. May of those decisions such as stopping sugar or in particular fruit, as part of the so-called ‘detox ‘ is probably one the poorer choices that people do during this period of fad dieting. So it’s time to put the record straight on how to detox, or more appropriately how to maintain detoxification processes efficiently.

Detoxification and its suggested three phases, like most of the processes in the body is energy/nutrient/hormone dependant. Therefore the ability to detoxify efficiently is regulated by the amount of energy available and influenced greatly by how well your hormones function. The thyroid gland for example, is key to maintaining energy and this means energy for the liver to function. Detoxification is just one of the many functions of the liver, which also include glucose production and storage and the maintenance of adequate cholesterol.

The CDR or cell danger response suggests an evolutionary response to insults that affect the human body (and in particular cellular function) from a variety of sources. These can include:

  • Viral
  • Bacteriological
  • Chemical
  • Parasites
  • Electromagnetic stress
  • Physical and psychological trauma.

The net effects of the CDR can be suggested as a protective mechanism that stiffens cell membranes, perhaps to protect other cells, a decrease in processing of many nutrients and other compounds such as metals, and a decrease in metabolism. Whether this down regulation of function is protective or a result of the damage inflicted remains to be answered. Increased oxidative stress to how the body’s cells function can decrease the ability to generate energy using oxygen. Cellular respiration (ability to use oxygen to provide energy) using oxygen and carbohydrate remains the most efficient system for generating energy. Increased stress decreases the ability to utilise carbohydrate as a fuel. Other compounding factors with the CDR are a change to the gut bacteria, which can increase the fermentation of carbohydrates. So called beneficial bacteria such as Lactobacilli can produce lactic acid that disrupts the cells of the digestive system and increase the amount of gut damaging endotoxin.

For many the over indulgence will increase factors such as endotoxin, making them feel low, irritable and poor energy and sleep. An increase to neuro- transmitters such as serotonin and histamine, will exacerbate these issues and decrease sleep quality. The New Years resolution brings about a restriction of calories and eating less, burdening the digestive system less. People often make the assumption (one of many) that cutting out sugar has caused this miracle change but it may simply be the decrease in food itself. Perhaps it’s the lack of calories and the increase in adrenaline, much like the runners high, which makes people feel great?

For some, the equation of increased movement with less calories that is often employed at this time of year will have a good effect. For many others, and in particular, those who have a cell damage response, that is being resolved, this equation seems to have little effect. The decrease in available energy, to a cell that struggles to maintain adequate energy output, will find the move more, eat less, scenario a challenge.

Ketogenic diets often have great short-term effects for weight loss. In the long term a ketogenic remains a stressed energy state requiring the need for more cortisol, a decrease in carbon dioxide (decreasing the amount of available oxygen for use) and a less efficient form of energy production. Those who have a large amount of weight to lose, potentially expose the metabolic system to increased stress by oxidising fatty acids.

The stressed body requires carbohydrate. Low blood sugar states require a balance of carbohydrate (with fat and protein), to maintain optimal detoxification you need carbohydrate. Unfortunately with the fear mongering on social media you can often observe the following.

  1. Sugar feeds and causes cancer.
  2. Sugar is addictive

Here’s the thing. There is not any scientific proof to validate those statements. The primary fuel for any cell is glucose, even in cancer cells, if sugar is not available, it will generate energy from protein. Otto Warburg’s research has often been misinterpreted to suit inaccurate memes. Damage to the respiratory function of the cell is often the source of mutagenic aspects of cellular/mitochondrial (energy producing cells) that potentiates the growth of cancer.

The sugar is addictive study; well if you look closely at the study you will see that sugar activates the same reward centre of the brain such as sex, exercise and receiving gifts. The science of addiction is beyond the scope of my expertise, however if you have someone that cannot regulate energetic processes that well, they may seek out adequate energy, with sources of easily processed carbohydrates. It would appear that insulin sensitivity becomes an issue when there is an excess of energy.

Are you eating too much? Or is it simply that you cannot process the energy available? Well, if you eating less and moving more but weight, energy, sleep, libido or emotional balance aren’t improving. Then you know which one it is.

I am not suggesting here is that you should over eat sugar and carbohydrates. Much like, I wouldn’t NUTRITIONsuggest overeating broccoli, or drinking too much water.

Either way removing the protective capacity of carbohydrates to create balance is probably not the way to go.

Adrenal Fatigue or Reductionist Thinking?

adrenal

 

Here is the first part of my article, which published in the May 2014, Womens Health and Fitness Magazine.

Adrenal fatigue or reductionist thinking?

Often, being given a distinct diagnoses that can relate to modern living can   make sense to us, a modern condition that makes sense of the hectic lifestyle and the symptoms that we have been experiencing. Over the last decade there has been much literature on a so  called ‘Adrenal fatigue’, whose symptoms are wide reaching from fatigue, digestive dysfunction, weight and sleep issues.

Walther Canon and Hans Seyle, probably the most prominent  scientists to study and interpret the mechanics behind, adrenaline, cortisol and the stress response, showed that when  rats were exposed to high levels of stress, they developed issues such as ulcers, intestinal bleeding and then finally death. The common suggested auto immune diseases that are becoming more prevalent, such as intestinal hyper-permeability or leaky gut can therefore be interpreted as symptoms of chronic stressors.

The premise of adrenal fatigue works something along these lines.

  • You are exposed to stress
  • You produce stress hormones (Alarm phase)
  • Your body returns to normal
  • You become stressed again on a regular basis
  • You enter the adaptation phase
  • You constantly maintain the stress response through permanent exposure
  • The adrenal glands become exhausted
  • Suggestion that you have adrenal fatigue or exhaustion phase

There are many problems with this interpretation and deduction of adrenal fatigue, and how many practitioners treat this reductionist diagnosis.  If your adrenals were truly fatigued, you may not actually be with us anymore and ultimately be dead. Cortisol which is produced by the adrenal glands, is the primary hormone that directs immune function, inflammation and is involved in virtually all aspects of body function. Certainly the terms hypocortisolemia, too little cortisol and hyper, too much cortisol make sense, and that is what a typical adrenal stress test tells us. Are we producing too much or not enough cortisol , on that particular day, based around a suggested norm?

Cortisol does go up and down, and probably outside of suggested arbitrary norms especially if you experience or engage in the following:

  • Excessive physiological or structural stress, intense exercise without adequate rest.
  • Psychological stress
  • Diet or fail to eat enough calories, eating too much may also contribute over time
  • Eat a so called healthy diet based upon current guidelines
  • Fail to get adequate sleep.
  • Chronic exposure to environmental pollutants

The longer one stays in a state of chronic stress the more compromised all aspects of body function become. This can ultimately result in hormone, immune and metabolic systems dysfunction.

The positives from treating the aspects of adrenal fatigue are a compliance of those suffering from the suggested condition, to address aspects of why they have got to this current state of affairs. Overworking, too much or too little exercise, not enough sleep and psychological stress recognition can be aspects that can be changed with great effect.

To create effective change, should we not consider other aspects of function that would treat the root cause, rather than plaster over the symptom? Lets take a look at the cross over between symptoms of both adrenal and thyroid dysfunction, which have roots in energy and digestion. You may start to notice that there are many symptoms that you may experience a mixture of both and to highlight adrenal fatigue alone is problematic. The thyroid gland supports energetic process’s and when this becomes compromised we call on the adrenal glands to act in a supporting role. Addressing energy, metabolism and digestion, should be the target of any lifestyle or therapeutic interventions.

Adrenal symptoms Thyroid symptoms
Fatigue

Difficulty sleeping

Low blood pressure

Clenching teeth

Dizzyness

Arthritic issues

Crave salt

Sweats a lot

Allergies

Weakness

Afternoon crash

Need to wear sunglasses

Anxiety

Weight gain or loss

Difficult to lose or gain weight

Nervousness/anxiety

Constipation

Hair loss

Poor energy/fatigue

Feel cold hands and feet

Mentally sluggish

Morning headaches

Seasonal sadness

Poor sleep

 

 

 

 

However treating adrenal fatigue in isolation with adaptogenic herbs, restriction of sugar and other stimulants as is often the case, may be unwarranted and most importantly ineffective in resolving these issues. Treating any system in isolation is reductionist and often gives you at best, reductionist results. The complex interaction of the Hypothalamus-Pituitary-Adrenal-Thyroid-Gonadal axis is a system that helps our body manage many global aspects of our body’s function and therefore addressing adrenal balance leaves a gaping hole in your treatment strategy. Consider that the adrenals and in particular cortisol production can be a slave to the your environment, nutrition, exercise and other lifestyle choices. Take stock, address what may be affecting your stress hormone production, If these factors can be changed do so. Stress is a double-edged sword. We need a certain amount of stress to improve our physiological function. Constant exposure to stress decreases our biological state.

Raising biological wholeness such as energy levels, cognition and increasing balance throughout the hormonal system can give much better results than focusing on the adrenals. Remember that the adrenals and ultimately cortisol production elevate in response to, what you eat, or fail to eat, the environment, psychological and physiological stress. All of these aspects are changeable.  In the next article I suggest some strategies that can be used to improve energy and lower adrenal stress.

Nutrition and Exercise dogma

Dogma creation

If you haven’t yet met someone who has recommended you either some form of diet or a type of exercise, you are unique, in fact a real rarity, and somewhat lucky.

The fitness and wellness industry is awash with much dogma, often created by short term ideologies, that in long term may be harmful to ones health. A friend sent me a link to a simple yet effective graph from Keith Norris’s blog  on chasing performance goals and their impact on health.  This got me thinking about the fields that I work in and how much of the recommendations are riddled with dogma and lack critical thought processes.

There’s often a reason for this dogma existing and for many it is due to the anecdotal gains that can be experienced in the short term. Here are just a few reasons why:

  • High carb to low carb
  • Eating grains to not eating grains
  • High meat eater to vegetarian
  • Sedentary to high intensity exercise
  • Modern SAD to Paleo
  • Regular diet to juicing

There are plenty more and the point to be made is, some positive gains can be made in the short term, change to metabolic markers, restriction in excessive calories, weight loss and a variety of other markers. From the diagram above you can observe that whenever there is a change to the input of a system, change can occur and especially when there has been little variance in the past. As change occurs and an almost linear increase in perceived health markers also occur, a Zone of Optimisation and resultant dogma often ensue.

‘This really worked for me, and it will do for you, trust me!’

Is the problem for many people, those often short term gains, on the way up on your performance curve, may actually start falling sooner than you think.

For the performance exerciser, poor movement, compensation and ultimately pain will ensue.

For those to the new diet, great results could  turn into stagnation, weight gain and a host of metabolic disturbances.

Is it working for you? Well do you:

  • Have good digestion?
  • Have deep restorative sleep?
  • Balanced energy?
  • Healthy libido?
  • Balanced emotions
  • Good stress response

If you don’t, you may just be coming down from that peak of physiological and biochemical gains. When might it happen, 1, 2 or even 5 years down the line perhaps?  Hysteresis or a systems memory can be changed with ease if there exists, little underlying metabolic damage and a reduction of factors that increase resistance to repair  that system. Supporting metabolic processes should be first and foremost.

Understanding that fitness is not always a healthy pursuit and paying attention to markers that increase vitality should be a goal, and be pursuant to any fitness goal.

Move, play, eat, digest and sleep well.

 

Aspirin- Another mis-understood anti-oxidant?

Conventional nutrition teaches us that our diet should be abundant with antioxidants or the re-classified redox molecules such Vitamin B, C, E glutathione and the like. And it’s not a bad idea too, especially as the body is bombarded with insults on a daily basis in the form of xenoestrogens, toxins, soot in the air, dirty water and all sorts of complex chemicals hidden in our foods. A healthy diet and high nutrient consumption is essential in preventing damage to our DNA through reactive oxygen species or ROS which can contribute to oxidation of fats and other compounds, which contributes to the aging process and exposure to disease development.

Aspirin is one such compound that is often overlooked in the fight against cancer and aging and was a target of the pharmaceutical companies marketing campaign to discredit its benefits, when they decided to bring out a COX 2inhibitor. COX 2 inhibitors help to supress the production of prostaglandins that can be responsible for inflammation, cell degradation, pain and the like. It shouldn’t be lost on anyone that Aspirin which is salicylic and ascetic acid is a natural product that cannot be patented. Therefore it has often been the goal of business lead institutions to discredit many natural substances that cannot be lucratively pursued.

One of the many benefits of Aspirin is its ability to supress lipid peroxidation which is usually mediated by consumption and storage of polyunsaturated fatty acids. When these are stored as body fat in the form of triglycerides and then released in an attempt to stabilise blood sugar levels large amounts of oxidative stress can occur and the use of Asprin, vitamin C and vitamin E can help suppress this form of stress that is heavily linked to heart disease and cancers.  Some of the many unwanted effects of Aspirin such as gastrointestinal stress have been recorded when exceptionally high doses of aspirin have been used in laboratory experiments.

The use of Aspirin shouldn’t be discounted in the fight against disease prevention, however supplementing with Vitamin K would also prove to be beneficial.  To find out more about aging and disease prevention get in touch.

1. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0891584900004251

2. Ascorbic acid enhances the inhibitory effect of aspirin on neuronal cyclooxygenase-2-mediated prostaglandin E2 production.

Candelario-Jalil, Eduardo and Akundi, Ravi S. and Bhatia, Harsharan S. and Lieb, Klaus and Appel, Kurt and Munoz, Eduardo and Hull, Michael and Fiebich, Bernd L. (2006) Ascorbic acid enhances the inhibitory effect of aspirin on neuronal cyclooxygenase-2-mediated prostaglandin E2 production. [Journal (Paginated)]

Peat, R. Nutrition For Women. 1993.

http://raypeat.com/articles/aging/aspirin-brain-cancer.shtml

Why are polyunsaturated oils so dangerous?

PUFA’ s or poly-unsaturated fatty acids have been suggested as being a safe food source for many years and many have even touted as being protective for the heart. Saturated fats have been outcast as the villain as the marketing purse of seed manufacturers often outweighed the gain that could be had by the protective more stable fats of coconut and palm oils.

Because the molecular structure of PUFA’s are less stable than saturated fats when heated they become carcinogenic.  Many studies favoured by the seed industry have favoured the analysis of so called good and bad cholesterol or LDL’s and HDL’s as a marker for the so called healthy effect of vegetable and seed oils.  A factor overlooked as part of this education is that high HDL levels can be interpreted as an auto immune process in action and cancerous states can be correlated with high HDL levels.  Heat alone will not cause PUFA’s to become unstable, overtime these oils can become rancid and when consumed cause lipid peroxidation . Think of all those warehouses of nuts that have been sitting around for months or years before being consumed, which are then often roasted and the PUFA’s within them oxidised.

The problem is that when all of these oils are consumed they cause the production of Reactive Oxygen Species or ROS and lipid peroxidation which causes large amounts of stress to cellular DNA which can be responsible for genetic mutations which can lead to aging, cell destruction and cancers. Ray Peats work on the damage caused by PUFA’s is very well documented.

Many commercially consumed foods such as tortilla chips (which mostly are derived from genetically engineered crops that have been covered in harmful pesticides) have been fried in these oils causing a dabble whammy of oxidative stress and insult to the human organism. People often think that by eating healthily they are able to not worry about small details such as fats and have often been falsely convinced that butter/ghee/ coconut and palm oils and that, high fat diets are the causative link in heart disease and heart attacks.

Dealing with ridding the body of dangerous PUFA’s stored in body fat stores can be achieved with the right diet plan and ameliorating the dangerous effects of lipid peroxidation can be achieved with supplementation such as Vitamin E, B’s,  Asprin  and others.   Below I have highlighted a list of oils  that are ideal for cooking with and the others should be avoided.  To find out more about restoring your body to optimal health please get in touch. Balanced Body Mind

Approximate PUFA content of various oils and fats:  (taken fromIntegrative/med)

Evening Primrose oil (81% PUFA)
Hemp oil (80% PUFA)
Flax oil (72% PUFA)
Grapeseed oil (71% PUFA)
Chia oil (70% PUFA)
Safflower oil (75% PUFA)
Sunflower oil (65% PUFA)
Perilla oil (63% PUFA)
Corn oil (59% PUFA)
Soybean oil (58% PUFA)
Pumpkin oil (57% PUFA)
Walnut oil (55-63% PUFA)
Cottonseed oil (50% PUFA)
Sesame oil (41-45% PUFA)
Canola oil (30-37% PUFA)
Rice bran oil (36% PUFA)
Beech nut oil (32% PUFA)
Peanut oil (29-32% PUFA)
Pecan oil (29% PUFA)
Brazil nut oil (24-36% PUFA, 24% SAFA)
Pistachio oil (19% PUFA)
Cashew oil (17% PUFA, 20% SAFA)
Almond oil (17% PUFA, 8% SAFA)
Duck fat (13% PUFA, 1% cholesterol)                 Use but try to go for safer oils below
Lard (12% PUFA, 41% SAFA, 1% cholesterol)  Use but try to go for safer oils below
Filbert oil (10-16% PUFA)
Avocado oil (10% PUFA)
Macadamia oil (10% PUFA, 15% SAFA)

Safe cooking oils
Goose fat (10% PUFA, 1% cholesterol)
Palm oil (8% PUFA, 50% SAFA)
Olive oil (8% PUFA, 14% SAFA)
Butter (4% PUFA, 50% SAFA)
Ghee (4% PUFA, 48% SAFA, 2% cholesterol)
Cocoa Butter (3% PUFA, 60% SAFA)
Coconut oil (2-3% PUFA, 92% SAFA, 0% cholesterol)
Palm kernel oil (2% PUFA, 82% SAFA)

Kick ass pate

Tommo’s Chicken Liver pate (al orange!)  Gluten and dairy free

Clients are often asking me for recipes for different foods, so until I manage to write my own cookbook this should go some way to appeasing them. I often actively encourage clients to make use of organic organ meats, especially the liver as it has a good amount of protein and vitamin A amongst others and assists in thyroid function, gene transcription, eyesight and immune system function. We often used to consume a lot more of the whole animal (see previous posts on gelatin) to glean more nutrients that balance the consumption of muscle meats alone.  This pate dish is great to take along to work and have with carrots or sticks of cucumber and the best part its gluten free. I also made this dairy free as I am not handling casein/dairy to well at the moment but you can substitute the coconut oil with butter and cream if you so wish. Dairy often gets a bad press but if your gut can tolerate it isn’t a food that should be restricted from your diet for long periods

Here’s what you need:

Chicken livers, Half a roasted squash, 2 oranges, Coconut oil, Maple syrup, Thyme, 1 small red onion, Salt & pepper, 2 cloves of garlic, Dried chilli.

Here’s what you do….                                                                                    

  • Soften the onions with a large dollop of coconut oil in a big pan
  • Add the chicken livers and brown off                                                                 
  • In a mortar and pestle grind down  the  garlic adding thyme, chilli, salt and pepper
  • Squeeze two fresh oranges and add to mortar, spoon around the edges to get  the paste
  • Add  half of roasted squash and a gulp of syrup with the contents of the mortar to thelivers
  • Cook for another 10 minutes, so that the squash has become part of the juice of the livers
  • Once the livers are cooked and there is little or no blood oozing from them take off the heat
  • Mix in a blender and add another large dollop of coconut oil       until it’s looking like a paste
  • Pour contents into a glass or ceramic bowl
  • Allow to cool, then place into a fridge to set

I think this goes well with some buckwheat crisp breads, with nori seaweed on top, or with some vegetables, if you prefer. Whatever you do it tastes great and will help to give you variety that tastes pretty good.

Remember good food with the right type of exercise goes along way to healing your gut and mind, get in touch if you experience pain, fatigue, energy, sleep, skin and other problems.