Nutrition

How to keep your energy chain maintained. Protective compounds.

How to keep your (electron transport) chain-2.png

How to keep your energy chain ( electron transport or ETC) running might not be something you think about, but if you are concerned about being healthier, this is an often overlooked area of maintaining health. It came as a huge disappointment to find out that the historical use of a false tooth compartment to hide cyanide tablets (for soldiers and spies) to commit suicide was pure fantasy. Although cyanide hidden in glasses appears to be more likely, the role of cyanide to induce rapid death is indisputable. We are at a time where industrial pollutants are at an all time high and cyanide being one of those pollutants, might not induce a theatrical foaming of the lips and contorted last throws of life (as seen in many an old war movie); it may induce a slower, less dramatic affect on cell function and efficient biology over time.

Cyanide is certainly ubiquitous in the industrialised environment but unknowingly for many, trying to achieve a ‘healthier’ balanced diet, cyanides are present in many foods favoured by the health conscious.

There are more than 2500 plants associated with cyanide content, these include almonds, millet, lima beans, soy, spinach, bamboo shoots, and cassava roots (which are a major source of food in tropical countries), cyanides occur naturally as part of sugars or other natural compounds. Cassava consumption (especially so in poorer countries) is associated with the neurological, irreversible disease called Konzo (Nzwalo & Cliff, 2011). Some other major sources of cyanide are:

Seeds/kernels of apples, apricots, plums, peach and nectarine, millet, almonds, flax seed, , spinach, sorghum gluten free flour like cassava often used to replace normal flours. Simply type in cassava poisoning into a search engine and you'll see some cases where dozens of people from the same meal have died from a so called bad cassava. Most likely it was the poor preparation and failure to remove the cyanide from the cassava that lead to these numerous deaths. In one case in the Philippines in 2005, 27 children died in such a manner.

Other cyanide sources include vehicle exhaust, releases from chemical industries, burning of municipal waste, and use of cyanide-containing pesticides (Jaszczak et al 2017) and the more obvious smoking.

Excess cyanide (ions) is able to disrupt the efficient production of energy that is produced through the electron transport chain/mitochondria (energy producing cells) where water, carbon dioxide and energy are end products. The loss of this function often creates a decreased ability to utilise carbohydrate effectively and the result can be an excess of lactate, which diminishes cell function further and creates hypoxia. Lactic acid seems to be getting some praise of late but it is the hallmark of inefficient energy production, as observed in the so called Warburg state seen in cancer (5). As cyanide levels increase cellular death occurs through increased lactic acidosis. This is the death throw that you see our actors who have crunched down on that mythical hydrogen cyanide capsule. It's also observed as a cause of death to the unlucky Private Santiago in A Few Good Men, where he has a rag with cleaning fluid, stuffed into his mouth creating a not to dissimilar occurrence.

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You want the truth? You can't handle the truth but it might be that a combination of dietary cyanide and pollutants might not be as healthy as you think.

If there’s a ubiquitous source of cyanide and other pollutants in the environment does it make sense to have plenty of cyanide containing foods? Let’s not take this out of context. Here and there - having foods that have some levels of cyanide in should pose no problem to a healthy individual but what if your diet contains a regular supply and also contains plenty of vegetables that contain goitregens or foods that slow down thyroid function (and also contain cyanide) it may be problematic. Many people seem to promote a diet high in raw green vegetables, nuts, seeds, often low in adequate protein and often deficient in adequate energy/carbohydrate. In this instance the so-called healthy diet, in a highly polluted area becomes a burden not a provider of energy to promote optimal thyroid health, energy and liver enhancer (energy, detox, hormones etc.).

Chris Masterjohn’s report - Thyroid toxins, highlights the out of context suggestions of nutritional science evaluation of compounds in a test tube compared to a real world scenario.

The line that divides nutrients from toxins is often thin and equivocal. Since any given chemical may react in any number of ways in a test tube depending on the other chemicals with which it is combined, it is often possible to prove such a chemical to be both a nutrient and a toxin.

If a diet is to be considered healthy, it should meet the body’s energetic demands without reducing its function. A healthy energy chain ensures that carbohydrate is metabolised efficiently without an excess of lactic acid production.

The abundance of glucosinolates found in broccoli, cauliflower (and other brassica vegetables) and other cyanide like food sources combined with other environmental pollutants may pose substantial problems over time. Heavy metals like mercury, which are also increasing environmentally can decrease selenium and iodine uptake creating another algorithm for decreased function.

 cell enhancers

cell enhancers

Caffeine can be considered a useful compound for preventing excess uptake of metals and may go someway to explain the anti-oxidant and other positive effects observed in neurological degeneration diseases such as Alzheimer’s and dementia (Liu et al., 2016). Other compounds like methylene blue can be seen in the next diagram that promote a better energy chain.

" As I have shown in my earlier days , one can knock out the whole respiratory chain by cyanide and then restore oxygen uptake by adding methylene blue  which takes the whole electron transport chain over between dehydrogenases and  O2 ."   Albert Szent Györgi

You can also reduce the risk of excess cyanides in foods through heating, boiling and other forms of processing but given that the zeitgeist is as raw, wholesome and as gluten free as one can be, it’s unlikely that this occurs in the upwardly mobile food neurotic.

References:

  1. Jaszczak, E., Polkowska, Ż., Narkowicz, S., & Namieśnik, J. (2017). Cyanides in the environment—analysis—problems and challenges. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 24(19), 15929–15948. http://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-017-9081-7

  2. Liu, Q.-P., Wu, Y.-F., Cheng, H.-Y., Xia, T., Ding, H., Wang, H., … Xu, Y. (2016). Habitual coffee consumption and risk of cognitive decline/dementia: A systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. Nutrition, 32(6), 628–636. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.nut.2015.11.015

  3. Nzwalo, H., & Cliff, J. (2011). Konzo: From poverty, cassava, and cyanogen intake to toxico-nutritional neurological disease. PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases. http://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0001051

  4. Masterjohn, C. Thyroid Toxins Report. 2007

  5. http://raypeat.com/articles/articles/cancer-disorder-energy.shtml

  6. Szent Györgi, A. Introduction to a Submolecular Biology. Academic Press. 1960.

http://www.keithlittlewoodcoaching.com

Poly Cystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) - inheritance, environment and stress.

Estrogen excess.png

Poly Cystic Ovary Syndrome - inheritance, environment and stress. Recently I took on a client who was diagnosed with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), a slightly wayward insulin profile and the ‘best practice’ of oral contraceptives and Glucophage (metformin- blood sugar regulating drug) were suggested. My client had started bleeding daily and was informed that this was normal for three months but would help out with PCOS and weight gain. However this seemed at odds with my current knowledge and experience of biology and endocrinology. There are plenty of studies highlighting the diabetes inducing effects of estrogen and oral contraceptives.

Glycemia constitutes a fundamental homeostatic variable, and hence its alteration can lead to a number of pathophysiological conditions affecting the internal milieu of the human being. Since the early 1960s, the intake of oral contraceptives has been associated with an increased risk of developing disorders of glucose metabolism.(Cortés & Alfaro, 2014)

Is best practice the efforts of a global network of doctors or simply a corporate led strategy? Don’t get me wrong; the world is full of competent, passionate and well-meaning doctors who signed up to help others. But the concept of both best practice and clinical governance seem a utopian ideal when those that are responsible for drug development are companies whose primary function is to make as much money as possible, without appropriate direction.

Joseph Dumitt in his book Drugs for Life (2012) highlights that there hasn’t been a scientist at the head of a pharmaceutical company for many years and their direction being driven by economists and marketers. As there are many examples of absolutist statements regarding drugs and their positive effects on health that lack congruence over time, you’ll forgive me for sounding like a conspiracy theorist. How about hormone replacement therapy (HRT) for better health despite its negative outcomes related to cardiovascular events or cancer? Or statin therapy for decreasing unnecessary risk factors based upon skewed data and early terminated trails with no public access to trial data (Lorgeril & Rabaeus, 2016)?

Back to PCOS. I have written previously about the effects of metformin and its use in gestational diabetes, and the problems it poses trans-generationally. It’s possible to suggest that the failure to act with appropriate biological interventions perpetuates the cycle of acquired traits from parents that are passed to offspring, treated ineffectively and generations of reproductive (and other tissues) tissue conditions continue without being resolved.

The biologist Jean Baptiste Lamarck's fourth law stated:

“ Everything which has been acquired..or changed in the organisation of an individual during its lifetime is preserved in the reproductive process and is transmitted to the next generation by those who experienced the alterations. “

It's worth pointing out that this is not isolated to the female of the species as the factors below have been shown to be instrumental in reproductive issues (testicular dysgenesis, hypospadias etc) in males.

The environment has been shown to be instrumental in the development of reproductive tissue disorders, diabetes and cancer but more emphasis is placed on the individual and their food choices rather than acknowledgement of industrial responsibility. Positive associations between levels of polychlorinated bisphenyls (PCBs), pesticides, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) have been confirmed in multivariate data analysis (Yang et al., 2015). Relationships between increases of luteinising hormone (LH) PCO, hyperandrogenism, annovulation, insulin resistance and pollutants are significant and may add to issues of detection, due to the subtle long term perturbations that often affect endocrine function. Stress, other pollutants and medications contribute to further problems that burden not only reproductive tissue but also other organizational hormones such as thyroid hormone.

PCOS is defined medically by the following: One of the main problems of treating PCOS with contraception is the many studies that clearly show a relationship between estrogen and decreased insulin sensitivity (Godsland et al., 1992)(Cortés & Alfaro, 2014). Progestin’s, the synthetic version of progesterone, also pose many problems but this has not deterred the inclusion of estrogen and progestin contraceptives as another inappropriate form of treatment. The burden of estrogen induced by the sources suggested above comes at a cost and it’s well known that an excess of estrogen can suppress thyroid function (thyroid is necessary for detoxification of estrogen and another organisational hormone progesterone.

Both thyroid and progesterone are known to improve insulin sensitivity and can create beneficial changes to disorganised tissue induced by an excess of estrogen. Thyroid nodules and uterine fibroids appear to be intimately linked by an excess of estrogen (Kim et al., 2010) and suppression of thyroid tumours can be achieved by thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) suppression by thyroxin supplementation (Grussendorf, Reiners, Paschke, & Wegscheider, 2011). An old rambling on thyroid nodules and fibroids.


Breaking the cycle requires interventions that address inheritance, environment and individual stressors. Strategies that involve adequate nutrition that build biology not reduce it, use of protective compounds like progesterone, thyroid and adequate carbohydrate can be of great benefit. Although this stands in contrast to the best practice of contraception, blood sugar medication and poorly thought out nutritional advice of restricting carbohydrates. As the environment appears to drive most of the increasing numbers of issues like PCOS, it becomes important to increase robustness, restrict exposure to what we can control and become more adaptable to what we can’t.

To find out more about coaching for these issues.

References:

Burkhardt, R. W. (2013). Lamarck, evolution, and the inheritance of acquired characters. Genetics, 194(4), 793–805. http://doi.org/10.1534/genetics.113.151852

Cortés, M. E., & Alfaro, A. a. (2014). The effects of hormonal contraceptives on glycemic regulation. The Linacre Quarterly, 81(3), 209–218. http://doi.org/10.1179/2050854914Y.0000000023

Dumit, J. (2012). Drugs for Life. Duke University Press.

Godsland, I. F., Walton, C., Felton, C., Proudler, A., Patel, A., & Wynn, V. (1992). Insulin resistance, secretion, and metabolism in users of oral contraceptives. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 74(1), 64–70. http://doi.org/10.1210/jcem.74.1.1530790

Grussendorf, M., Reiners, C., Paschke, R., & Wegscheider, K. (2011). Reduction of thyroid nodule volume by levothyroxine and iodine alone and in combination: A randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 96(9), 2786–2795. http://doi.org/10.1210/jc.2011-0356

Kim, M.-H., Park, Y. R., Lim, D.-J., Yoon, K.-H., Kang, M.-I., Cha, B.-Y., … Son, H.-Y. (2010). The relationship between thyroid nodules and uterine fibroids. Endocrine Journal, 57(7), 615–21. http://doi.org/10.1507/endocrj.K10E-024

Lorgeril, M. De, & Rabaeus, M. (2016). Beyond confusion and controversy, can we evaluate the real efficacy and safety of cholesterol-lowering with statins? Journal of Controversies in Biomedical Research, 1(1), 67. http://doi.org/10.15586/jcbmr.2015.11

Sleep, stress, sugar. Eat sugar for better sleep.

 Onset of sleep

Onset of sleep

Can you improve sleep and decrease stress by eating sugar for better sleep? If you put sleep, stress and sugar in the same sentence, most people think they have already put the three together with something like; too much sugar causes stress and affects your sleep. If you read on you should find yourself advantageously aware of sleep biology and why consuming sugary foods before sleep, and indeed if you wake up are the answer for a deeper nights sleep.

Ah a good nights sleep. You remember one of those don’t you? As a father to 3 children I have had my fair share of sleepless nights but a recent 11 hour sleep whilst my kids slept for 12 hours, recently reminded me of why everyone should strive for better sleep and the common approaches that people tend to fail to implement. A couple of years ago I studied a short course on the neurobiology of sleep with the University of Michigan and I found it useful as it correlated with aspects of serotonin function that Ray Peat (7,8) had talked previously talked about.

Generalisations of sleep biology phases are:

Sleep latency - Getting your sorry arse to sleep

NREM sleep - Keeping your sorry arse asleep

REM sleep - Deep arsed sleep

Wakefulness - Wake your sorry arse up

One of the primary driving factors of the onset of sleep or sleep latency is the production of adenosine. Caffeine is a well-known antagonist of adenosine and therefore many a wise word about not drinking caffeine after 3-4 pm as it has a half-life of 6 hours are well heeded (yes I know there are some of you that metabolise caffeine really well after that time with no impact on sleep, STOP SHOWING OFF).  Avoiding caffeine though out the day isn’t necessary and caffeine is a widely mis-understand compound that shows many beneficial effects, if you follow the rules for its consumption.

Often there is much focus on the role of melatonin and sleep induction and structures like the suprachiasmatic nucleus and waking. Melatonin does indeed promote sleep but so does adenosine and I think the supplementing of melatonin misses key biological functions that induce sleep more effectively and without the negative effects associated with its use.

Serotonin and melatonin confusion

 Sleep wake compounds

Sleep wake compounds

Just like the holistic health practitioner that suggests that coffee causes adrenal fatigue (it doesn’t but that’s another blog by itself), some practitioners recommend the use of 5HTP - tryptophan supplements (tryptophan converts to serotonin) for better sleep but this is misguided for the following reasons. It’s true that melatonin is a hormone of sleep and that it is derived from serotonin and that serotonin has a small but limited role in inhibiting the cholinergic system responsible for keeping you in an alert, thinking state. In the diagram below and born out of many studies is that serotonin is a powerful compound of wakefulness that synergises with histamine and the histaminergic system to bring you out of the deeper REM sleep, and start the process of waking you the hell up. The diagram from Brown et al (Brown, Basheer, McKenna, Strecker, & McCarley, 2012) highlights the complexities of the sleep wake compounds but also useful for highlighting serotonin's role (5HT) in the excitatory waking state. It’s also a great overview of the many areas and compounds that aren’t addressed in this blog. One thing that should become clear is that the neural structures controlling sleep are many and so are the interactions between hormones and other compounds of wakefulness. My advice below is not complete but merely a reflection of some of the simple changes that you can do (and which I have done with many clients) to create better sleep and recovery. 

Here are a few pointers on serotonin and melatonin.

  • Many people are aware of the fact that at least 95% of the body's serotonin is produced in the intestines - namely the enterochromaffin cells.

  • People associate serotonin as a hormone of calmness. 1) It’s not a hormone 2) well known side effects of serotonin excess are insomnia and anger.

  • Serotonin induces spasticity of the colons smooth muscle tissues

  • Eating excess muscle meats increases serotonin (as does eating poorly digestible foods), inflammation and can contribute to increased wakefulness by synergising with histamine.

  • Melatonin may be implicated in seasonal affective disorder due to increased levels in darker winter days. Sunglass wearing may pose similar issues (Alpayci, Ozdemir, Erdem, Bozan, & Yazmalar, 2012)

  • Supplementation with melatonin during the day can induce disruptive changes to fertility and also suppress thyroid hormone (Creighton & Rudeen, 1989).

  • Peak concentrations of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) occur at night and might be suggestive of thyroid hormone suppression induced by melatonin and other hormones. The pituitary responds by increasing TSH to bolster thyroid hormone supply.

Of course there are other compounds which include acetylcholine, GABA, oxycretin, histamine and many other areas of the central nervous system that could be mentioned but I have tried to stick to the mechanisms that can be changed and promote change in a short space of time.

If you find it hard to drift off, these are my suggestions as to why this might happen:

  1. You are eating foods that promote intestinal inflammation and increase serotonin and histamine.

  2. You are exposed to excess stimulus such as blue light, Wi-Fi or other source.

  3. Your blood sugar levels are not balanced and promote the stress hormones that liberate glucose from stored fats and proteins - adrenaline-glucagon-cortisol.

If you wake up at night the following might be also be an issue

  1. You are eating foods that promote intestinal inflammation and increase serotonin and histamine.

  2. Your blood sugar levels are not balanced and promote the stress hormones that liberate glucose from stored fats and proteins - adrenaline-glucagon-cortisol.

Point 2 may be a significant factor for many people and available efficient glucose production may be one of the most under-rated factors in both the onset of sleep and maintenance of sleep. Waking up to urinate at night is a feature of the diabetic like state. Poor blood sugar regulation requires, that instead of relying on blood and liver glucose stores, the stress response be relied upon to liberate energy from stored fats. This is an inefficiency that requires a stressed state. You should not be waking at night to go for a pee.

 Morning Cortisol profile

Morning Cortisol profile

You can see from the average nighttime cortisol profile that cortisol generally starts to rise around 2 am, steadily increasing prior to the onset of waking. If your ability to regulate blood sugar levels is compromised this can increase the burden to blood sugar regulation and increase waking further. The REM phase of sleep uses a similar amount of glucose as the waking state.

Here are some useful tips that I use with clients to promote better sleep and recovery.

  1. Take a look at the previous post on resolving digestion issues. This helps to take away some of the factors related to serotonin and histamine excess.

  2. If you are exercising hard, low carb, busy parent or whatever form of stress and therefore don’t manage your blood sugar levels, you don’t manage your sleep. If you struggle getting to sleep a sweet drink like milk and honey (yes the old wives tale works like a charm). A glass of fruit juice with gelatin is also good. Any pattern with something with sweet with a little protein/fat is useful.

  3. Add some salt - increased stress burdens the adrenal glands, usually though thyroid hormone suppression. Salt is wasted in this state and so is magnesium. Salt spares magnesium, so adding a little salt also helps magnesium regulation.

  4. If you wake during the night. This can be common when trying to resolve these issues as liver function and hormone regulation take a little time to adjust. Therefore having something sweet by the bed can help to help you re-enter sleep. Squeezy honey tube or pouch of juice with straw I find useful so that the juice goes straight down rather than covering my teeth.

  5. I have often found that progesterone and thyroid play a key role in sleep and many clients have benefitted from resolving the states of low progesterone/thyroid, which may not have resolved with food alone.

  6. Optimal blood sugar regulation often starts with eating breakfast to decrease adrenaline, glucagon and cortisol (Jakubowicz et al., 2015)(Levitsky & Pacanowski, 2013). Drinking a kale smoothie or coffee on an empty stomach is not the best way to break your fast and set up the day.

  7. Of course aspects of sleep hygiene related to no phones, WI-FI etc goes without thinking and go as far as turning your router off at night.So armed with some facts that you can decrease stress and improve sleep by eating sugar in the right amount, you can go and experiment for yourself.

References:

  1. Alpayci, M., Ozdemir, O., Erdem, S., Bozan, N., & Yazmalar, L. (2012). Sunglasses may play a role in depression. Journal of Mood Disorders, 2(2), 80. http://doi.org/10.5455/jmood.20120529055051

  2. Brown, R. E., Basheer, R., McKenna, J. T., Strecker, R. E., & McCarley, R. W. (2012). Control of Sleep and Wakefulness. Physiological Reviews, 92(3), 1087–1187. http://doi.org/10.1152/physrev.00032.2011

  3. Creighton, J. A., & Rudeen, P. K. (1989). Effects of Melatonin and Thyroxine Treatment on Reproductive Organs and Thyroid Hormone Levels in Male Hamsters. Journal of Pineal Research, 6(4), 317–323. http://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-079X.1989.tb00427.x

  4. Jakubowicz, D., Wainstein, J., Ahrén, B., Bar-Dayan, Y., Landau, Z., Rabinovitz, H. R., & Froy, O. (2015). High-energy breakfast with low-energy dinner decreases overall daily hyperglycaemia in type 2 diabetic patients: a randomised clinical trial. Diabetologia, 58(5), 912–919. http://doi.org/10.1007/s00125-015-3524-9

  5. Levitsky, D. A., & Pacanowski, C. R. (2013). Effect of skipping breakfast on subsequent energy intake. Physiology and Behavior, 119, 9–16. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.physbeh.2013.05.006

Online:

7. http://raypeat.com/articles/articles/serotonin-depression-aggression.shtml

8. http://raypeat.com/articles/articles/serotonin-disease-aging-inflammation.shtml

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Is testosterone replacement therapy necessary?

Is Testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) necessary or symptom chasing? [embed]https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KC0-xL0JVrI&feature=youtu.be[/embed]

In a world where it is increasingly normal to be convinced that we fall into a risk classification, need a treatment and can convince our doctor accordingly, negating any experience that he or she might have. The marketeers and economists that run pharmaceutical companies are doing a great job of increasing profits. Before we keep looking for the next wonder treatment we should take stock of what food and exercise can do.

Testosterone can be increased by some very simple strategies such as:

  1. Having adequate liver and vitamin A in the diet to assist in the conversion of cholesterol to pregnenolone - the base hormone responsible for production of testosterone and other androgens.

  2. Ensuring that adequate energy and thyroid hormone are available to maintain communication of the hypothalamic- pituitary- (signalling centres for hormone production-brain to testicles) gonadal axis.

  3. Understanding stress, sleep and interactions between excesses of estrogen and their impact on testosterone production.

  4. Less understood but increasingly keeping mobile communication devices out of pockets and bags that are close to reproductive tissue, including females (ovaries, endometrium etc), appears to be a pragmatic approach in the future. Steroid producing tissues have increased production of problematic compounds that may be prone to damage.

Here's some of the technical aspects to the situation that are taken from a recent assignment as part of my masters degree..

Introduction

Testosterone is a hormone found in both males and females but is the major reproductive hormone in men that also has a variety of other beneficial functions for maintaining physical and psychological aspects to health. Testosterone levels may decrease with disease and/or be part of an age related decline of output. The use of testosterone supplementation has increased substantially in recent years counter these states, primarily due to increased marketing as an agent of change for energy, strength, fat loss and sexual function. Whilst its use appears beneficial in some areas, caution has been recommended on the effects of T supplementation use and it’s effects on the cardiovascular system.

 Diagnosis

Testosterone (T) is the most important androgen found in males and produced primarily within the testes, when low it is defined as hypogonadism. Hypogonadism is classified as either primary, derived from the testes or secondary, which involves the hypothalamus, pituitary or derived from illness or disease. A low serum testosterone (<300ng/dL) is suggestive, but not definitive of hypogonadism and measurements of luteinising (LH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) is used to establish a primary or secondary diagnosis (Crawford & Kennedy, 2016). A worry trend is that despite striking increases of testosterone prescription a substantial amount (approximately 29% in this review) of patients often fail to have their levels checked prior to undertaking testosterone replacement therapy (TRT). (Corona G, Rastrelli, Maseroli, Sforza, & Maggi, 2015). Additionally only 45 % had their testosterone levels checked during or post TRT intervention.

Low testosterone and cardiovascular risk

Previous studies have highlighted an increase in all cause mortality associated with low testosterone levels in men (Araujo et al., 2011). Conditions that increase risk of mortality related to low testosterone are increased abdominal obesity, inflammatory biomarkers, dyslipidaemia, diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome. However the diagnosis of an isolated low testosterone level should be qualified by ruling out other potential diagnosis such as long-term illness, nutritional deficiencies and other endocrine issues such as subclinical or overt hypothyroidism.

Testosterone supplementation and risks

A number of studies and meta analysis have demonstrated a number of beneficial effects of TRT which extend to increased sexual satisfaction, muscle mass, strength mood and metabolic function (Corona G et al., 2015) (Gagliano-Jucá & Basaria, 2017). However the suggested risk to increased CV adverse events have appeared vague in many studies and previous extrapolations/anecdotes between men having increased levels of testosterone (and therefore increased cardiac risk) and females having less testosterone and more oestrogen were not just problematic but incorrect. Many studies have correlated low testosterone to low biomarkers of health and increased cardiovascular disease (Pastuszak, Kohn, Estis, & Lipshultz, 2017) (Kloner, Carson, Dobs, Kopecky, & Mohler, 2016).

TRT reductionism and treating symptoms

A comprehensive review of the data compiled by Oskui et al (Mesbah Oskui, P., French, W.J., Herring, 2013) described the major CV implications of TRT which can be observed below. The authors draw attention to previously conducted studies, that did not show any relationships between low levels of testosterone and CV risk and suggest that both the subfraction of testosterone (Total T compared to Free T) and method of analysis for CVD were inappropriate and therefore unreliable for inclusion. 

Cardiovascular analysis Studies Major findings Association between T and mortality 8 8/8 studies found relationship between low T and increased all cause and CV mortality. Type 2 DM 6 6/6 studies showed improved insulin sensitivity through HOMA-IR/HgA!c and improved blood glucose Cholesterol 3 2/3 studies found no change to LDL/HDL from TRT Markers of inflammation (primarily C reactive protein CRP) 8 4/8 studies found reduced CRP Intima media thickness 8 8/8 found an inverse relationship between low T and IMT

The above studies reviewed by the authors, established a link between low levels of testosterone and increases in mortality (all cause and CV), insulin sensitivity and increases in intima media thickness that are resolved by TRT. Yet markers for lipids and inflammation markers such as CRP are less convincing. Hypothyroidism is related to low testosterone and hypogonadic states mainly through hypothalamic-pituitary dysfunction. Treatment of hypothyroid and subclinical hypothyroid states also resolves low testosterone and hypogonadic states, decreases intima media thickness, improves insulin sensitivity and decreases lipid levels (Crawford & Kennedy, 2016), (Krassas, Poppe, & Glinoer, 2010),(Donnelly & White, 2000) (Gao, Zhang, Zhang, Yang, & Chen, 2013). Is TRT the correct therapy for many males, given a) the rapid increases in often undiagnosed and prescription and b) when hypogonadic states, that have similar (cardiac) manifestations and are improved beyond the effects of TRT, are resolved with thyroid hormone?

Another factor concerning reliability of the studies used in previous meta analysis is the size to determine true risk between CV adverse events and TRT (Onasanya et al., 2016). The authors suggesting that to achieve a two-sided p value of 0.05 and power of 80% some 17664 participants would need to study to clarify any relationship. Observational data conducted over 5 years suggested that control groups treated with testosterone in short term had a lower mortality (HR 0.88 95 % CI 0:84 - 0.93) than controls (Wallis et al., 2016). From the meta analysis and other studies discussed above both age (>65) and predisposition to existing disease states may indicate the likelihood of adverse CV events when treated with TRT.

Another draw back of meta-analysis is the inclusion of data and bias produced by pharmaceutical companies that may not be adequately reflected or assessed. Much like cardiovascular end point studies being scarce. Testosterone studies that are funded by financial interests are usually in place to validate the benefits of TRT and fail to evaluate CV adverse events as end points. The increased adequate sample size needed to validate the safety and efficacy of this treatment often increase cost and decrease profit margin over time. The many studies that have been conducted so far, show much smaller sample sizes and a wide range of TRT delivery and dosing.

In a recent case crossover analysis that is not included in any current meta analysis, Layton et al (Layton et al., 2018) found a unique association between testosterone injections and short term cardio (and cerebrovascular) events in older men. Increased associations with myocardial infarction and stroke, post testosterone injection showed odds ratio (OR) were increased for all outcomes, OR =1.45 (95%: CI 1.07, 1.98).

Summary

Testosterone replacement does appear to have many positive effects on a number of markers related to cardiovascular health which include sexual performance, increased muscle mass, metabolic health, physical performance and decreasing mortality in a younger population. However, despite the many benefits of TRT the use of this therapy may have significant risk in late onset hypogonadal states, in ages >65 years of age, those susceptible to conditions associated with erythrocytosis and an association with acute cardiac events exists. It remains essential to ensure that not only adequate analysis of hypogonadal states are present but to ascertain if low testosterone levels are merely a symptom of other endocrine disturbances, such as hypothyroidism which has striking similarities to low levels of testosterone.

Want some more free resources on hormones?

References:

1.Araujo, A. B., Dixon, J. M., Suarez, E. a, Murad, M. H., Guey, L. T., & Wittert, G. a. (2011). Clinical review: Endogenous testosterone and mortality in men: a systematic review and meta-analysis. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 96(10), 3007–19. http://doi.org/10.1210/jc.2011-1137

2.Basaria, S., Davda, M. N., Travison, T. G., Ulloor, J., Singh, R., & Bhasin, S. (2013). Risk Factors Associated with Cardiovascular Events During Testosterone Administration in Older Men with Mobility Limitation. The Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences, 68(2), 153–60. http://doi.org/10.1093/gerona/gls138

  1. Corona G, G., Rastrelli, G., Maseroli, E., Sforza, A., & Maggi, M. (2015). Testosterone Replacement Therapy and Cardiovascular Risk: A Review. The World Journal of Men’s Health, 33(3), 130–42. http://doi.org/10.5534/wjmh.2015.33.3.130

  2. Crawford, M., & Kennedy, L. (2016). Testosterone replacement therapy: role of pituitary and thyroid in diagnosis and treatment. Translational Andrology and Urology, 5(6), 850–858. http://doi.org/10.21037/tau.2016.09.01

  3. Donnelly, P., & White, C. (2000). Testicular dysfunction in men with primary hypothyroidism; Reversal of hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism with replacement thyroxine. Clinical Endocrinology, 52(2), 197–201. http://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2265.2000.00918.x

  4. Gagliano-Jucá, T., & Basaria, S. (2017). Trials of testosterone replacement reporting cardiovascular adverse events. Asian Journal of Andrology, 19(May), 1–7. http://doi.org/10.4103/aja.aja

  5. Gao, N., Zhang, W., Zhang, Y., Yang, Q., & Chen, S. (2013). Carotid intima-media thickness in patients with subclinical hypothyroidism: A meta-analysis. Atherosclerosis, 227(1), 18–25. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2012.10.070

  6. Kloner, R. A., Carson, C., Dobs, A., Kopecky, S., & Mohler, E. R. (2016). Testosterone and Cardiovascular Disease. Journal of the American College of Cardiology. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.jacc.2015.12.005

  7. Krassas, G. E., Poppe, K., & Glinoer, D. (2010). Thyroid Function and Human Reproductive Health. Endocrine Reviews, 31(5), 702–755. http://doi.org/10.1210/er.2009-0041

  8. Layton, J. B., Li, D., Meier, C. R., Sharpless, J. L., Stürmer, T., & Brookhart, M. A. (2018). Injection testosterone and adverse cardiovascular events: A case-crossover analysis. Clinical Endocrinology. http://doi.org/10.1111/cen.13574

  9. Mesbah Oskui, P., French, W.J., Herring, M. J. et al. (2013). Testosterone and the Cardiovascular System: A comprehensive Review of the Clinical Literature. Journal of the American Heart Association. http://doi.org/10.1161/JAHA.113.000272

  10. Onasanya, O., Iyer, G., Lucas, E., Lin, D., Singh, S., & Alexander, G. C. (2016). Association between exogenous testosterone and cardiovascular events: an overview of systematic reviews. The Lancet Diabetes and Endocrinology. http://doi.org/10.1016/S2213-8587(16)30215-7

  11. Pastuszak, A. W., Kohn, T. P., Estis, J., & Lipshultz, L. I. (2017). Low Plasma Testosterone Is Associated With Elevated Cardiovascular Disease Biomarkers. The Journal of Sexual Medicine, 14(9), 1095–1103. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsxm.2017.06.015

  12. Roos, A., Bakker, S. J. L., Links, T. P., Gans, R. O. B., & Wolffenbuttel, B. H. R. (2007). Thyroid function is associated with components of the metabolic syndrome in euthyroid subjects. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 92(2), 491–6. http://doi.org/10.1210/jc.2006-1718

  13. Udovcic, M., Pena, R. H., Patham, B., Tabatabai, L., & Kansara, A. (2017). Hypothyroidism and the Heart. Methodist DeBakey Cardiovascular Journal, 13(2), 55–59. http://doi.org/10.14797/mdcj-13-2-55

  14. Wallis, C. J. D., Lo, K., Lee, Y., Krakowsky, Y., Garbens, A., Satkunasivam, R., … Nam, R. K. (2016). Survival and cardiovascular events in men treated with testosterone replacement therapy: an intention-to-treat observational cohort study. The Lancet. Diabetes & Endocrinology, 4(6), 498–506. http://doi.org/10.1016/S2213-8587(16)00112-1

  15. Xu, L., Freeman, G., Cowling, B. J., & Schooling, C. M. (2013). Testosterone therapy and cardiovascular events among men: A systematic review and meta-analysis of placebo-controlled randomized trials. BMC Medicine, 11(1). http://doi.org/10.1186/1741-7015-11-108

 

Sunlight, health and cancer

 The more you read, the more holes you find in many theories.

The more you read, the more holes you find in many theories.

Increasing sunlight exposure increases an individuals health and decreases cancer risk. In the last year or two I remember reading a quote from a professor of dermatology at a university in the U.S. who stated, “ There is no amount of sun that is good for the skin.” Clearly said professor skipped basic biology in secondary school or has had a lifetime of examining patients with excess PUFA (polyunsaturated fatty acids) in their diet, which is associated with increased incidence of skin cancer (there’s also a hopeful possibility that he was quoted out of context but I live in hope). Sun and skin cancer are clearly linked. Or are they? It doesn’t appear so clear cut. I first became interested in light around 2009 and its benefits to health after reading Female Hormones in Context by Ray Peat. His suggestions that sunlight can, “cure depression, improve immunity, stimulate our metabolism, while decreasing food cravings and increase our intelligence, ” (Peat, 1997) intrigued me to gain a deeper understanding.Whilst I was aware of the harms of an excess of UV light, which can damage skin but is essential for increasing vitamin D levels. The far-reaching benefits of the spectrum of red and orange lights were unbeknownst to me.

Seasonal affective disorder or SAD is well documented and the mechanisms may be due to a number of factors such as increases in serotonin and melatonin. People generally get sicker and more depressed in winter and light therapy appears to be a useful tool in overcoming some of the symptoms associated with mood, energy and immune system related issues. If light is so harmful, why is it we often need more in these times and why has sunlight become so vilified?

Sunlight appears to get a bad rap in an ever increasingly reductionist causal relationship, in as much as sunlight causes skin cancer. Therefore wear sunscreen and avoid it. However current literature suggestions are along the lines of; “Wearing sunscreen increases sun exposure and increases incidence of melanoma and skin cancer.” Like many other approaches this A to B inference neglects to mention other pertinent mechanisms that can be attributed to increased incidence of cancerous states.

Cancer is a well known metabolic disease that can occur when specific effects to cells, namely mitochondria and the electron transport chain (ETC - often termed respiratory defects which allows problematic features of metabolism to occur, increasing damaging compounds). Cancer can be a feature of poor differentiation. Damage to tissues can often require new tissue to be formed. If an architect informs the site manager how to build the structure from just the blueprints without appreciation of the surrounding land and features, you can’t always guarantee success of completion.

Promoting better conversations between structures     

Vitamin A - promotes cell differentiation (this is very important when damaged tissue is rebuilt), improves immune system function and optimal hormone function. A meta analysis in 2016 highlighted vitamin A’s protective functions and usefulness in protection against skin related disease such as melanoma through inhibiting malignant transformation and decreasing tumour size and improving survival rates (Zhang, Chu, & Liu, 2014). It’s important to note that retinol from liver sources is the effective compound in this action and not carotenoids. Other findings such as anaemia are synergistic with decreased vitamin A levels due to its critical role in the immune system and fighting infection (Semba & Bloem, 2002). Vitamin A has similar actions to organisational compounds such as progesterone and thyroid.

A question worth exploring - Does a vitamin A deficiency decrease differentiation and lead to a potential increase in cancerous type states when exposed to UV light?

Estrogen

Estrogen has been implicated in many cancerous states, primarily due to its role in tissue proliferation. When unchecked by levels of progesterone, it can be responsible for unwanted tissue growth and mutagenicity (Mungenast & Thalhammer, 2014) (Troisi et al., 2014). Levels can be increased due to external sources in the environment and through increased conversion of testosterone in adipose tissue to estrogen via aromatase in both men and women (Skakkebæk, 2003)(Cargouët, Bimbot, Levi, & Perdiz, 2006). The potential increases in cancerous states such as melanoma due to modulation of estrogen might be an easy target for excess levels of U.V. light to exert a negative influence in susceptible tissues. Therefore keeping estrogen low and utilising estrogen lowering strategies through food choices and avoidance of certain compounds can be useful.

Fat status of tissues.

I often found that when my diet was high in unsaturated fats my skin burnt extremely quickly. It’s been noted that people who often use sunblock often burn much quicker when in the sun without sunscreen. Increased consumption of unsaturated fatty acids appear to be linked to an increase in melanoma (Bourne, Mackie, & Curtin, 1987). Anecdotally I found that with a large decrease in PUFA my skin tolerates much longer bouts of sunshine before burning (not bad for a semi ginger pasty bloke from Kent!) , even in the intense middle-eastern heat. High fat diets, whether un/saturated also decrease mitochondrial activity and lower oxidative metabolism (Titov et al., 2016). It’s well known that vegetable oil consumption is linked to cancer (Niknamian, S., Kalamian, 2016) and heated vegetable oils that enter the body are already oxidised causing additional inflammation.

Perhaps melanoma is substantially increased when an individual has increased estrogen exposure, excessive amounts of unsaturated fatty acids in the skin and vitamin A deficiency but does that still implicate sunlight as the cause of skin cancer? The A to B scenario hopefully seems less convincing.

Modulating estrogen and decreasing PUFA in the skin is a step in the right direction. Increasing skin tolerance for longer days in the sun will be beneficial for many people. Using a homemade sun screen with minimal PUFA in can be useful for those wanting to spend extra time in the sun without damaging the skin and of course depending on the latitude, avoiding peak sun times is prudent to avoid excess UV light.

More information on resolving these issues can be found in the member’s area.

References:

Bourne, D. J., Mackie, L. E., & Curtin, L. D. (1987). Melanoma and Dietary Lipids. Nutrition and Cancer, 9(4), 219–226. http://doi.org/10.1080/01635588709513930

Cargouët, M., Bimbot, M., Levi, Y., & Perdiz, D. (2006). Xenoestrogens modulate genotoxic (UVB)-induced cellular responses in estrogen receptors positive human breast cancer cells. Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology, 22(1), 104–112. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.etap.2006.01.002

Mungenast, F., & Thalhammer, T. (2014). Estrogen biosynthesis and action in ovarian cancer. Frontiers in Endocrinology, 5(NOV). http://doi.org/10.3389/fendo.2014.00192

Niknamian, S., Kalamian, M. (2016). Vegetable Oils Consumption as One of the Leading Cause of Cancer and Heart disease. International Science and Investigation Journal, 5(5).

Peat, R. (1997). From PMS to Menopause: Female Hormones in context.

Semba, R. D., & Bloem, M. W. (2002). The anemia of vitamin a deficiency: Epidemiology and pathogenesis. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition. http://doi.org/10.1038/sj/ejcn/1601320

Skakkebæk, N. E. (2003). Testicular dysgenesis syndrome. In Hormone Research (Vol. 60, p. 49). http://doi.org/10.1159/000074499

Titov, D. V., Cracan, V., Goodman, R. P., Peng, J., Grabarek, Z., & Mootha, V. K. (2016). Complementation of mitochondrial electron transport chain by manipulation of the NAD+/NADH ratio. Science, 352(6282), 231–235. http://doi.org/10.1126/science.aad4017

Troisi, R., Ganmaa, D., Silva, I. D. S., Davaalkham, D., Rosenberg, P. S., Rich-Edwards, J., … Alemany, M. (2014). The role of hormones in the differences in the incidence of breast cancer between Mongolia and the United Kingdom. PLoS ONE, 9(12). http://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0114455

Zhang, Y.-P., Chu, R.-X., & Liu, H. (2014). Vitamin A intake and risk of melanoma: a meta-analysis. PloS One, 9(7), e102527. http://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0102527

Being holistic versus (holistic) critical thinking.

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Is being 'holistic' an advantage to holistic critical thinking? It’s relatively easy to get drawn into a naturalistic fallacy of consuming all foods in their most raw natural state. Perhaps you’re someone who went from a fast food diet, where you didn’t feel your best, to consuming more whole foods, fresh fruit and vegetables? It’s easy to see how a switch and positive changes can occur in the short term. The next step is to start preaching to the masses how sugar is bad, how your life will be saved with green smoothies, nuts, seeds and coffee butt cleanses. For the record this is a waste of coffee and not to far from what I was preaching a decade ago. So what does it mean to be holistic?There’s a large movement within the health fitness and wellness industry (and lay people) that are drawn to  'holistic' thinking, and their definition is often enforced by the fallacy that everything in its most natural state is better for human health. This appears to include foods like nut milks (yes you can milk a nut), kale smoothies, seed oils like flax and undercooked broccoli and other greens, despite their negative effects on human health when consumed in substantial amounts. It’s a religion, and much like religion and with this mind-set it isn’t going to make you any healthier. I’ll make reference here to the late, great Beastie Boy, MCA who despite being a vegan and a Buddhist died far too early from throat cancer.

It is true that eating plenty of foods in their most natural state f(or some foods) can be important for health. But the image on the right highlights the faulty narrative of being holistic without thinking about the consequences. Fruits, vegetables, dairy products, meats and the like require minimal processing but in the quest for longevity, taste and profit, adding preservatives and flavour enhancers causes our food sources to become problematic. The so called ‘holistic’ folk get lost in this narrative urging your diet to become abundant in the rawest, greenest and brownest foods, that are most indigestible and contain potent inhibitors of biological function.

To integrate a level of holism into nutrition and function requires a level of critical thinking. What do these foods contain? How do they affect physiology? It’s well known that the brassica vegetables like broccoli, cauliflower and sprouts contain potent compounds that decrease energy output. These goitregens inhibit thyroid output and isothiocyanates found in cruciferous vegetables affects TPO or thyroid peroxidase, both of which are exacerbated when iodine uptake or restriction is present. Research tends to support these problematic effects (Choi & Kim, 2014)(Truong, Baron-Dubourdieu, Rougier, & Guénel, 2010), but much attention is focused on the smaller compounds that seem to work well in test tubes, rather than its global effects. As the environment becomes more stressful for biology do we need more building or reducing factors within our control?

The environment can be a harsh place. There are plenty of pollutants that have a negative effect on fertility, metabolism and other key endocrine aspects of health, some of which are industrial, others purposively added to food (arguably another form of industry) (Rajpert-De Meyts, Skakkebaek, & Toppari, 2000)(Upson, Harmon, & Baird, 2016). We can argue that the environment has always been a harsh place and adaptation has taken place as a response to selective pressures at the heart of evolution. Yet currently we are heading towards a tipping point, as environmental stimulants appear to be at the heart of acquired biological damage that is inherited by offspring. Cancer, fertility and other metabolic diseases are more common than ever and yet the approach is to keep seeking the magic bullet to ameliorate the fate that awaits many of us.

If we were to ask:

What enhances biological function, makes us more robust and allows us to have a stronger conversation with a stressful environment?

Rather than succumb to its stressors.

 The highway to health

The highway to health

A biological system in its best working order could be represented, as an infinite road stretching into the  distance, perhaps with the odd bump along the way or a slight deviation but an ability to get back on track is available. Compare that to the inhibitory T-junction where the body cannot function as the clear straight road, it deviates from its true organised direction. The journey is laboured and restrictive. The ability to flux and respond to stressors is key and adequate energy is an essential component of reorganisation.

Nutrition is an important factor for such conversations with the environment. Eating a diet that is dominated with foods that are difficult to digest, decrease energy availability and create more stress are not going to make chatting any easier. If we make the effort to understand what keeps a cell and its mitochondria functioning at its most efficient state, we can understand why aspects such as sugar, adequate protein, moderate exercise, light and other factors, can play a role in overcoming current stimulus that decrease function and increase disease states.

The following article is definitely worth a read for an understanding of the concepts that I have talked about. http://raypeat.com/articles/articles/vegetables.shtm

References:

Choi, W. J., & Kim, J. (2014). Dietary factors and the risk of thyroid cancer: a review. Clinical Nutrition Research, 3(2), 75–88. http://doi.org/10.7762/cnr.2014.3.2.75

Rajpert-De Meyts, E., Skakkebaek, N. E., & Toppari, J. (2000). Testicular Cancer Pathogenesis, Diagnosis and Endocrine Aspects. Endotext. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25905224

Truong, T., Baron-Dubourdieu, D., Rougier, Y., & Guénel, P. (2010). Role of dietary iodine and cruciferous vegetables in thyroid cancer: A countrywide case-control study in New Caledonia. Cancer Causes and Control, 21(8), 1183–1192. http://doi.org/10.1007/s10552-010-9545-2

Upson, K., Harmon, Q. E., & Baird, D. D. (2016). Soy-based infant formula feeding and ultrasound-detected uterine fibroids among young African-American women with no prior clinical diagnosis of fibroids. Environmental Health Perspectives, 124(6), 769–775. http://doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1510082

Methylene Blue - Let’s play the blues.

Methylene blue - an overview: There’s been many times when I have recommended compounds/agents to create change in clients. Even the basic strategies of increasing sugar, not wearing sunscreen or the use of aspirin for improving energy and decreasing oxidative stress has moved the odd eyebrow to be raised. Objections often dissipate when presented with the line of reasoning and research that supports my recommendations. Effective clients will often do their own research and come back armed with significant questions for a better understanding of what is trying to be achieved. Research previously conducted by the Nobel scientist Albert Szent Györgi showed that previously damaged cells that produce efficient energy can be restored with methylene blue.

So with the tradition of raising more eyebrows let’s suggest the use of a blue dye that can be added to aquariums for improving marine life health. That’s right you put it in fish tanks. Why indeed would you not think of consuming glassfuls of the stuff?

Methylene blue (MB) is a dye that has shown promising results in the following areas:

  • Tissue hypoxia
  • Hyper dynamic circulation of the liver post cirrhosis
  • Improved low blood pressure states
  • Hepato-pulmonary syndrome
  • Anti malarial agent
  • Improves mitochondrial function
  • Detects parasites such as h-Pylori
  • With additional treatment of red light has anti-parasitic effects.
  • Anti-microbial-kills MRSA
  • Hepatitis C and other conditions also effectively treated in tandem with red light application.
  • Anti-Alzheimer’s agent- attenuates amyloid plaques and improves mitochondrial function.

MB is able to decrease both nitric oxide and guanylate cyclase, both exert their influence on smooth cells and tissue, explaining its role in reversing severely low blood pressure states ( Medically termed - catecholamine refractory vasoplegia)

If we look closely at a couple of the major mechanisms, we can see that from a metabolic standpoint MB has some interesting benefits. It decreases hypoxia or increases oxygen saturation within the body, whilst also improving mitochondrial energy production.

The respiratory/ electron transfer (ETC) chain, that is essentially the mechanism providing optimal use of oxygen, carbohydrate, fat, when this functions well, carbon dioxide is produced, which allows for optimal dissociation of oxygen from haemoglobin. When the respiratory chain is damaged, cells often have to switch to inefficient anaerobic sources of energy production, wasting sugar and increasing lactic acid, which continue to decrease aspects of cellular function.

Methemoglobinemia is a state where haemoglobin is unable to carry oxygen. MB reacts within the red blood cell and converts ferric ions, which have been oxidised, to its former oxygen carrying state. Additionally it helps to repair the ETC that is often damaged due to pollutant, poison or inefficient metabolic induced changes as seen in states of Alzheimer’s (Oz, Lorke, & Petroianu, 2009).

Another novel aspect of MB is the treatment of parasitic infection. MB absorbs and reacts with the spectrum of red light acting as an antimicrobial/parasitic agent.

“ Protozoa require the invasion of a suitable host to complete all or part of their life cycle.”

So what constitutes an appropriate host? I offer the following definition.

An individual or organism that is unable to assimilate and produce energy effectively, organise optimal cellular function and provide an immune response capable of expelling or eradicating an opportunistic parasitic/bacterial infection.

I quote Ray Peat with the following:

“ Occasionally you have very vigorous parasites that have intentions. If they encounter you in a state when your blood sugar is low, for example, the parasites might find an opportunity and start disorganising your system. So the competing systems’ lower system getting a foothold in a higher system, counts as randomness. The assumption of randomness is usually that everything is always random. What has been ordered is achieved at a high cost, the arrow of time for these people is that you have to expend energy to create order, and get things piled up in a certain way can only do that by expending energy somewhere else. "

MB and the use low level laser therapy (or LLLT which uses red or near infra red light) have a commonality with their ability to reduce the inhibitory actions of nitric oxide. This leads to enhanced cytochrome c oxidase action at complex IV of the ETC ( in English this means the enzyme that promotes better function of the cells that use oxygen efficiently), promoting increased cellular respiration and energy production (ATP). These dual actions appear to be an effective anti-parasitic treatment.

If your still running around taking a rucksack full of supplements, restricting energy and immune enhancing foods to kill parasites and candida, this may be a far more effective therapy to consider. It should be no surprise that that considering these actions, the use of MB is being investigated as a serious therapy in the fight against cancer. The biology of cancer can be attributed to metabolic defects/damage within the mitochondria leading to mutations.

Of course like any compound whether it be oxygen, water, broccoli or vodka certain doses are problematic. However these are generally high. For example doses used to treat malaria are suggested as 36-72mg/kg over 3 days (Meissner et al., 2006) and safe therapeutic doses are suggested as <2mg/kg (Ginimuge & Jyothi, 2010). Newborn babies seem susceptible to MB side effects such as skin discoloration, respiratory distress and other unwanted symptoms. However, the mechanisms of why this might happen, requires a blog alone. It also appears problematic to those taking SSRI’s and can increase serotonin uptake to toxic levels.

What I have learnt from taking MB.

I found that if I took doses of more than 5mg total within a day or two of each other, my urine turned blue. A self -limiting factor that probably suggests that I was taking too much. I also had the odd crazy dream. I generally found that a total intake of 2.5 mgs or around 5 drops 2-3 days per week seemed to serve me well. I titrated up and found the optimal dose, something which I strongly recommend doing for all.

I found that my pulse oximeter readings improved from a general SpO2 93-97 to regular 98. Which is interesting as one side effect previously suggested is the ability of MB to underestimate pulse ox readings. It’s prudent to imply that any therapeutic dose may only create change as the system allows. Therefore basics strategies such as effective blood sugar regulation, through regular eating and other strategies should be applied.

Ps it’s also great at reversing cyanide and nitrate poisoning in fish. Might it be useful in humans consuming too much bacon?

1. Ginimuge, P. R., & Jyothi, S. D. (2010). Methylene blue: revisited. Journal of Anaesthesiology, Clinical Pharmacology, 26(4), 517–20. 2. Meissner, P. E., Mandi, G., Coulibaly, B., Witte, S., Tapsoba, T., Mansmann, U., … Müller, O. (2006). Methylene blue for malaria in Africa: Results from a dose-finding study in combination with chloroquine. Malaria Journal, 5. http://doi.org/10.1186/1475-2875-5-84 3. Oz, M., Lorke, D. E., & Petroianu, G. A. (2009). Methylene blue and Alzheimer’s disease. Biochemical Pharmacology, 78(8), 927–932. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.bcp.2009.04.034 4. Ray Peat quote originally taken from a YouTube interview with Andrew Murray. (cant recall which one) 5. https://www.google.com/patents/WO2007038201A1?cl=en 6. http://valtsus.blogspot.ae/ contains over 2500 LLLT studies and is by far the best resource available on the actions of LLLT.

Estrogen and aromatase - Keeping the wolves from the door.

Estrogen and aromatase,  (and the  role of prolactin and a lack of progesterone) in cancer are well documented and so are the stimulatory effects of the neuro-endocrine (nervous system/hormones) disruptors termed xenoestrogens, which mimic the action and excess of estrogen (Kim, Kurita, & Bulun, 2013) (Mungenast & Thalhammer, 2014). Estrogen and notably estradiol/E2 is often measured by a standard blood test, which remains as problematic as other blood tests such as TSH, which I have previously described. “ At first, it was assumed that the amount of the hormone in the blood corresponded to the effectiveness of that hormone. Whatever was in the blood was being delivered to the “target tissues.” But as the idea of measuring “protein bound iodine” (PBI) to determine thyroid function came into disrepute (because it never had a scientific basis at all), new ideas of measuring “active hormones” came into the marketplace, and currently the doctrine is that the “bound” hormones are inactive, and the active hormones are “free.” Ray Peat

In addition to the obvious production of estrogen in the reproductive tissues, it’s possible to increase estrogen conversion via aromatase, an enzyme which converts androgens such as testosterone to estrogen, is one of the other main factors. Adipose tissue is a prime location for increased aromatase activity.

Another problem with measuring hormones in the blood is that it rarely accounts for the intracellular accumulation of hormones. Estrogen in excess in the cell, promotes fluid retention, swelling and causes an increase in calcium. Measuring pituitary hormones and in particular prolactin (PRL) may give us a better indication of the relative excess of estrogen due to estrogens stimulatory effect on the anterior pituitary and PRL.

PRL excess is associated with issues such as breast cancer, prostate cancer, resistance to chemotherapy, infertility in both men and women, male reproductive health and galactorrhea (Sethi, Chanukya, & Nagesh, 2012) (Rousseau, Cossette, Grenier, & Martinoli, 2002). Treating PRL excess, particularly linked to the most common form of pituitary tumour (1:1000), the prolactinoma is often treated effectively by the dopamine agonists Bromocriptine or Cabergoline. However, it’s not beyond the realms of possibility that prevention and treatment of excess PRL production, be achieved with decreasing synthesis and exposure to estrogens both endogenous and from external sources.

Myopic thinking.

Modern medical thinking and analysis has led us to a reduced proposition when it comes to diseases like cancer. Cancer is essentially a metabolic disease, and the proposed respiratory defect, the idea of scientist Otto Warburg, is often replaced by the mechanistic thinking of the receptor theory of disease. Estrogen receptors are one of the main evaluations for assessing types of cancer but the very essence of the testing leads us to an increased myopic line of questioning, failing to ask the necessary questions that underlie a persons health status.

If a city is being evacuated, its railroad transportation system, will be quickly “saturated,” and the impatience of a million people waiting for a ride wont make much difference. But if they decide to leave on foot, by bicycle, boat or balloon, in all directions, they can leave as soon as they want to, any number of people can leave at approximately the same time. A non-specific system is ‘saturable,” a nonspecific system isn’t saturable. The idea of a cellular “receptor” is essentially that of a “specific” transport and/or response system. Specific transporters or receptors have been proposed for almost everything in biology - for very interesting ideological reasons-- and the result has been that the nonspecific processes are ignored and supressed. Ray Peat

Solutions.

Sometimes there are minimal opportunities for people to change their environment. Perhaps creating more solutions to enable better conversations with the environment, is the most pragmatic solution available?

Maintaining the body’s production of energy by optimising thyroid production, suppression of TSH (thyroid stimulating hormone) and lowering of other stress hormones like ACTH, intake of carbohydrates, protein and adequate light can support the necessary energy needed for the liver and digestive system to enhance detoxification of estrogen and estrogen mimickers.  A sluggish, fatty or hypothyroid state of the liver, makes it difficult for estrogen to be excreted. In states of constipation, beta glucaronidase converts inactive estrogen to the active form.  Keeping both estrogen and aromatase low seems a step in the right direction.

Foods also have the capacity to enhance estrogen synthesis. Mushrooms have shown to be a potent inhibitor of aromatase enzymes and have the capacity to lower the systemic production of estrogen (Grube, Eng, Kao, Kwon, & Chen, 2001). However it’s important to note that mushrooms need substantial cooking to reduce the liver toxins present.

“The hydrazine-containing toxins that Toth and others wrote about are destroyed by heat. Since extracts made by boiling the mushrooms for three hours were very active, I think it's good to boil them from one to three hours.

If you want to know more about prepping mushrooms and soups, then check out the link below for The Nutrition Coach, who reminded me why mushrooms for lowering estrogen and a great source of protein will be helpful when consumed regularly.

  

References: 

Grube, B. J., Eng, E. T., Kao, Y.-C., Kwon, A., & Chen, S. (2001). White Button Mushroom Phytochemicals Inhibit Aromatase Activity and Breast Cancer Cell Proliferation. J. Nutr., 131(12), 3288–3293. Retrieved from http://jn.nutrition.org/content/131/12/3288

Kim, J. J., Kurita, T., & Bulun, S. E. (2013). Progesterone action in endometrial cancer, endometriosis, uterine fibroids, and breast cancer. Endocrine Reviews. http://doi.org/10.1210/er.2012-1043

Mungenast, F., & Thalhammer, T. (2014). Estrogen biosynthesis and action in ovarian cancer. Frontiers in Endocrinology, 5(NOV). http://doi.org/10.3389/fendo.2014.00192

Rousseau, J., Cossette, L., Grenier, S., & Martinoli, M. G. (2002). Modulation of prolactin expression by xenoestrogens. Gen Comp Endocrinol, 126(2), 175–182. http://doi.org/10.1006/gcen.2002.7789\rS0016648002977890 [pii]

Sethi, B. K., Chanukya, G. V, & Nagesh, V. S. (2012). Prolactin and cancer: Has the orphan finally found a home? Indian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism. http://doi.org/10.4103/2230-8210.104038

http://raypeat.com/articles/articles/pdf/Estrogen-Receptors-what-do-they-explain.pdf

http://www.thenutritioncoach.com.au/anti-ageing/how-i-prep-mushrooms-and-why-its-worth-the-bother/#more-2595

 

What is functional hypothyroidism?

You won’t find the term functional hypothyroidism in the medical literature, or at least not yet. Primarily due to clinical hypothyroidism being bound to a rigid assessment usually diagnosed by the blood test thyroid stimulating hormone or TSH. TSH secretion is controlled by synthesis of thyroid releasing hormone or TRH in the supraortic and supraventricular nuclei of the hypothalamus. TRH is transported to the anterior pituitary by the hypothalamo- hypophysial portal system where it stimulates synthesis of TSH. T4, T3 and TRH control the secretion of TSH (Gardner et al., 2011).

TSH production can also be affected by TSH receptor damage, medical drugs, disease states, iodide, blood glucose levels and other circulating hormones TSH may also be affected by environmental pollutants and heavy metals (Llop et al., 2015).  Metabolic disease and increases in Body Mass Index appear to be correlated with an increase in TSH levels (Ruhla et al., 2010).

Often, you will see clear links and studies to key micronutrients such as zinc, selenium, iodine and other important co-factors. These deficiencies can exist demographically but usually in westernised societies, there deficiency can be linked to impaired absorption rates, perhaps linked to digestive dysfunction and other factors.

“Measuring the amount of thyroid in the blood isn’t a good way to evaluate adequacy of thyroid function, since the response of tissues to the hormone can be suppressed (for example, by unsaturated fats) (Peat, R.1999).

 Dietary factors such as unsaturated fatty acids in the diet may potentially be one of the most overlooked factors that supress thyroid function. Other factors such as caloric restriction, stressful environments, over exercising and other factors are some of the others. It’s well known that in certain areas of hormone dysregulation such as menstrual cycle irregularities, oligoamenorrohea (loss of cycle), anovulation (failure to ovulate) and lack of libido and fertility in both men and women,  can be attributed to poor energy intake and environmental factors (Nieuwenhuijsen et al., 2014) (Skakkebæk, 2003). Dietary factors have synergy with hormonal imbalances perpetuating high levels of estrogen.

The functional suppression of thyroid function by unsaturated fats, eating a so-called healthy diet (full of uncooked brassica vegetables, nuts and seeds) orthorexic states and other factors is largely ignored by physicians.

I can say with some certainty, after completing postgraduate studies at university with a number of Doctors, that diet and inhibitory factors of diet rarely get assessed when it comes to assessing energy and thyroid function.

A persistent functional hypothyroid state, induced by unsaturated fats may lead to the pre-diabetic and diabetic states induced by an inability to utilise carbohydrate and the preferential shift to use of fats instead of sugars as suggested in the Randle or glucose fatty acid cycle (Randle, Garland, Hales, & Newsholme, 1963). Increased cortisol, oxidation, decreased carbon dioxide and an increased stress on the oxidative system, could potentially lead to glycolysis and an increase in lactic acid, further increasing damage, stress and further suppression of thyroid function.

Measurement of thyroid blood tests remains inaccurate and problematic without the inclusion of a variety of symptoms and previously accurate assessment, such as basal metabolic rate, body temperature and pulse. The suppression of both thyroid and adequate energy states will always remain.

As the common approach for diagnosing hypothyroidism is having TSH above 4 or 5 mmUL and the preferred treatment is to supplement with synthetic levothyroxine. How much change can you realistically achieve if you fail to address the supressed metabolism induced by diet, an individuals susceptibility to stress and their own environment?

 

References:

Gardner, D. G., Shoback, D. M., Greenspan, F. S. et al .(2011). Greenspan’s Basic and Clinical Endocrinology. McGraw Hill.

Llop, S., Lopez-Espinosa, M. J., Murcia, M., Alvarez-Pedrerol, M., Vioque, J., Aguinagalde, X., … Ballester, F. (2015). Synergism between exposure to mercury and use of iodine supplements on thyroid hormones in pregnant women. Environmental Research, 138, 298–305. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2015.02.026

Nieuwenhuijsen, M. J., Basagana, X., Dadvand, P., Martinez, D., Cirach, M., Beelen, R., & Jacquemin, B. (2014). Air pollution and human fertility rates. Environment International, 70, 9–14. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2014.05.005; 10.1016/j.envint.2014.05.005

Peat, R. (1999). Thyroid Therapies, Confusion and Fraud. Retrieved from www.raypeat.com/articles/articles/thyroid.shtml

Randle, P. J., Garland, P. B., Hales, C. N., & Newsholme, E. A. (1963). The glucose fatty-acid cycle its role in insulin sensitivity and the metabolic disturbances of diabetes mellitus. The Lancet, 281(7285), 785–789. http://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(63)91500-9

Ruhla, S., Weickert, M. O., Arafat, A. M., Osterhoff, M., Isken, F., Spranger, J., … Möhlig, M. (2010). A high normal TSH is associated with the metabolic syndrome. Clinical Endocrinology, 72(5), 696–701. http://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2265.2009.03698.x

Skakkebæk, N. E. (2003). Testicular dysgenesis syndrome. In Hormone Research (Vol. 60, p. 49). http://doi.org/10.1159/000074499

 

An energetic approach to restoring gut function: Part 1.

Let’s kick this blog off with a question as to whether or not an energetic approach to restoring  gut function is useful or should we rely on testing and supplements? Let me clarify, that I have had my fair share of success stories with a reduced and diagnostic approach to improving gut health. Just like I have also had my fair share of kickbacks from the laboratory for recommending their tests. At one point I was using nearly 200 stool tests per year and making a little cash on the side. Many of the tests worked in isolating some specific disturbance to their gut bacteria, presence of a parasite or elevation of putrefied fatty acids. A ‘cleansing’ diet was promoted and a few supplements for good measure created some short term change whilst the client was in my care. But here’s why the long-term approach to that type of assessment and treatment may not be the best response. A standard functional medicine approach  after spending quite a lot of cash on an integrated stool test is using the 4 R approach.

Remove (offending parties)- spend money on supplements

Restore function- spend money on supplements

Re-inoculate - spend money on nice expensive probiotics

Repair gut lining- spend money on supplements

Regurgitate. Ok the 5th one is mine but no supplements needed.

By taking this approach, an important question is not asked of the individual. Why is this person experiencing an overgrowth of bacteria/SIBO, parasitic infection, endotoxin overgrowth, inflammation and degradation of the bowel lining? I like to think that it is not because of the easy kickbacks FM practitioners are getting for the lab tests and supplements they recommend? So what is the persons level of biological energy and immune system function that allows their digestive system to get in such a state. We know there are some usual suspects. Food, stress or alcohol perhaps?

The typical gastrointestinal complaints people came to me with, were bloating, excess gas, constipation or irritated loose stools combined with poor energy. It was Ilya Mechnikov who originally stated that death starts in the bowel or colon and there’s’ certainly many degenerative and inflammatory conditions that appear at the last stop to poopy central. But is the bowel the main driver of this dysfunction? Many of the symptoms that I recalled earlier are also key symptoms of an energetic and perhaps a thyroid dysfunction. So instead of reaching for our drastic 4 R protocol with an expensive poo test lets consider the following.

 The likes of Broda Barnes and Ray Peat have highlighted how a lack of energy, either from a low or inappropriate food intake or a dysfunctional hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-thyroid axis can be evaluated by assessing body temperature and the combination of pulse. Additional information on Thyroid and TSH evaluation can be found here.

Most people are aware that when they get stressed or exercise, blood is shunted away from the digestive system to the periphery and other working tissues. Even the concept of high Adreno-corticotrophic hormone (ACTH), cortico releasing hormone (CRH) and adrenal production of cortisol is becoming common place in work and gym environments alike. These hormones suppress thyroid hormone and the energy compound ATP that provide energy for tissues.

It’s also well known that low energy states create tight painful muscles that are difficult to relax and one might be able to apply that line of thought to the smooth muscle tissues that regulate bowel contractility. Therefore a low energy state that does not allow for adequate energy production will not allow adequate digestion and bowel function to occur. Cold hands and feet can be a symptom of not eating enough carbohydrate and protein.

If the cold hands and feet, low body temperature, fatigue, constipation don’t resolve from eating energy rich meals that contain plenty of fruit and contains little of the foods that promote the bowel irritants histamine and serotonin (nuts, seeds, vegetable oils, grains, gluten free products, beans and pulses). Then, often factors that influence the hormones such as thyroid, estrogen and progesterone may need a deeper consideration.

I drafted a little flow chart that will be helpful for some quick strategies on what might be happening but what I would like to focus on the low energy state that might have its source from a food or hormone factor or perhaps both. Instead of using a strategy like the 4 R approach, these simple questions can help guide you to understanding whether it is the foods that you eat or an energetic factor that could be causing your digestive system to suffer. It's not a complete algorithm but it does offer some simple solutions that have helped plenty of people resolve digestion and energy issues.

Foot note: I haven't needed a stool test with a client for over 4 years now following this chart.

 

In part 2 I will elaborate on foods and basic supplements that can be used to resolve most long standing digestive issues and understanding other hormone actions that create digestive discord.

References:

Lokaj, J., & John, C. (2008). [Ilya Ilich Metchnikov and Paul Ehrlich: 1908 Nobel Prize winners for their research on immunity]. Epidemiologie, Mikrobiologie, Imunologie : Casopis Spolecnosti pro Epidemiologii a Mikrobiologii Ceské Lékarské Spolecnosti J.E. Purkyne, 57(4), 119–24. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19069024

Peat, R. (1997). From PMS to Menopause: Female Hormones in context.

Peat, R. (2006). Autonomic Systems. Retrieved from raypeat.com/articles/other/autonomic-systems.shtml

Osteoporosis- could your exercise, nutrition and medical advice be better?

Osteoporosis and bone health, like many other aspects of optimal biology is a product of an organisms inputs and reactions to environmental stimulus. Osteoporosis is a condition like others, where prevention is often easier than the cure but perhaps the cure has been overcomplicated? Osteoporosis is a multifactorial musculoskeletal disease that is usually associated with the ageing process, decreased bone mineral density (BMD) and its tendency to fracture easily.       It’s clear that a number of factors that can be maintained throughout life to reduce the incidence of Osteoporosis in both men and women. Before we review those and compare with current guidelines, here’s some background info on the subject.

Primary Osteoporosis is the age related decline in men at around 70 and suggested as being a postmenopausal state, induced through the decreased production of estrogen in females. This last point is accepted in medical literature as the main cause of osteoporosis in females but may be severely flawed (more on this point later).

Secondary osteoporosis can be related to the following factors

Hypogonadism - testosterone/estrogen deficiency
Endocrine disease - Cushing’s syndrome, acromegaly, thyrotoxicosis, Addison’s disease and hyperparathyroidism
Dietary or assimilation deficiencies of calcium, vitamin K, vitamin D and other nutrients
Inflammation-rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus and ankylosing spondylitis
Neoplasms- Myleoma, lymphoma and leukaemia
Reduced physical activity
Medical drugs - corticosteroids, antiretroviral, antipsychotic, chemotherapy, hormone therapy, nicotine and excessive alcohol
Family history/genetics
Diabetes

The financial burden from osteoporosis generally, will increase from 98 Million Euros to 121 billion with proportional increases of 27.5 million to approximately 34 million people between the years 2010 to 2025 (Hernlund et al., 2013). Despite these huge burdens there appears to be a lack of well-designed educational programs that are geared at prevention of osteoporosis through non-pharmacological means.

The supplementation of vitamin D and calcium are well documented in osteoporosis strategies but a strategy to avoid these states are diets containing adequate calcium, vitamin A, K, magnesium (and others) adequate sunlight and moderate exercise.

Ok, so there’s a problem, it’s big business and there’s a lot of great info on how to avoid it right? Well no and here are the major points why I believe its not.

Diagnosis

 Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) is the recommended choice for osteoporosis diagnosis, serum calcium, phosphate, creatinine (with GFR) alkaline phosphatase, liver function, 25 OHD, total testosterone, estrogen CBC and 24 urinary calcium excretion are recommended for the interpretation of secondary causes of osteoporosis (Watts et al., 2012).

Hormones

Estrogen loss is touted as the most significant factor in decreasing BMD yet it’s action only retards resorption, or the removal of calcium from bone. Estrogen tends to inhibit the action of osteoclasts which ultimately reduce BMD. It’s the main reason the introduction of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) was considered as the primary treatment until its long-term use was found to induce clotting and cancer in women. So estrogen does not reverse Osteoporosis, it prevents further bone loss.

A variety of studies have suggested little influence of testosterone in males on BMD and that low estradiol levels combined with elevated sex hormone binding globulin appear to increase the loss of BMD (Cauley et al., 2010). A point worth noting from the correlation associated with higher estradiol levels and decreased BMD loss is that all participants in the study were recorded as having increased weight and BMD, which may influence skeletal modelling due to increased bone-loading parameters. Perhaps too much emphasis has been given to the suggestion that estrogen and its primary role of tissue proliferation amongst others, which should follow the course of age related decline?

Progesterone on the other hand has been shown to be a bone trophic or building factor that increases mineralisation of BMD, via osteoblasts (Prior, 1990). Stress increases cortisol and decreases progesterone binding at the receptor, with a preference for the glucocorticoid. Ray Peat (1997) points out that cortisol causes bone loss and its widely accepted that progesterone has an “antiglucocorticoid” action, it is reasonable to think that progesterone should protect against bone loss, and that it is a progesterone deficiency after menopause which is a major factor in the development of osteoporosis.

Thyrotoxicosis has been suggested as a mechanism of bone resorption but this appears inaccurate-  Ray Peat does a much better job at explaining this.

Medical treatment

Bisphosphonates are the first line medical treatment for treating osteoporosis and show modest changes to hip and vertebral BMD over 3 years. There use may come at a risk. Gastro intestinal side effects are well documented and in some the increase of osteonecrosis of the jaw has been observed. In some, the long-term use has been shown not only to increase the rate of fragility fracture but also to inhibit the healing process. It should be noted that adequate calcium and vitamin D in the diet are essential for bisphosphonate effectiveness

 Nutrition

 There tend to be two well-known stances to the fitness industries approach to nutrition. One, the transformation approach, where limiting of nutrients, particularly dairy and carbohydrates and intermittent fasting are the norm. Another, the holistic warrior whose consumption of chia seeds and all things green, raw and limiting of dairy and sugar again,  may be a factor into lowering BMD in later life. Calcium is an essential nutrient for bone health and dairy is indeed a great source of calcium. Here’s an old blog on the subject.

 It’s clear that adequate vitamin D is a nutrient that is important in BMD maintenance. It regulates calcium levels, decreases the production of parathyroid hormone, which is a potent resorption factor of skeletal calcium when calcium or vitamin D are low. Here are the main points that relate to diet.

  • Vitamin D in isolation and particularly high doses increases fracture rates (Janssen, Samson, & Verhaar, 2002)
  • Unless vitamin D is accompanied by adequate calcium, BMD can decrease further.
  • Vitamin K2 can prevent the calcification of soft tissues and help improve blood calcium levels (Masterjohn, 2007)
  • High meat and diets high in pulses and beans can have a negative effect on calcium levels due to their high phosphate levels.
  • Unless you assess other key nutrients like magnesium and the factors discussed above
  • Low diary intake can be associated with poor bone health.
  • The low carbohydrate, raw green and seed eating diet suggested by holistic health practitioners may contribute to lower BMD.

Exercise

Regular exercise has been touted as a significant factor in maintaining muscle mass and increasing BMD. But is the type of exercise that people are doing, increasingly in their younger years, contributing to better or worse outcomes to BMD. For bone to form adequate carbon dioxide (CO2 ) is essential. Some exercise regimes are so challenging, they contribute to excess levels of metabolic acidosis (lactic acid) and passing of CO2 from the body (worth noting that sugar consumption can also help to increase CO2 production) . Perhaps for exercise to be effective it should be light to moderate, with adequate rest periods that don’t mean that the participant is lying in a pool their sweat and vomit.

Walking, strength training with adequate rest, yoga, Pilates and other modes of moderate exercise appear most suitable for modest improvements to bone health but the diet and hormone factors are key.

It’s clear that osteoporosis is in the rise but it can be reversed. But instead of heading advice like cutting out dairy, eating lots of uncooked vegetables and training to complete exhaustion. There are more suitable mechanisms for improving bone health

References:

Cauley, J. A., Ewing, S. K., Taylor, B. C., Fink, H. A., Ensrud, K. E., Bauer, D. C., … Orwoll, E. S. (2010). Sex steroid hormones in older men: longitudinal associations with 4.5-year change in hip bone mineral density--the osteoporotic fractures in men study. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 95(9), 4314–23. http://doi.org/10.1210/jc.2009-2635

Hernlund, E., Svedbom, a, Ivergård, M., Compston, J., Cooper, C., Stenmark, J., … Kanis, J. a. (2013). Osteoporosis in the European Union: medical management, epidemiology and economic burden. Archives of Osteoporosis, 8(1–2), 136. http://doi.org/10.1007/s11657-013-0136-1

Janssen, H. C. J. P., Samson, M. M., & Verhaar, H. J. J. (2002). Vitamin D deficiency, muscle function, and falls in elderly people. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 75(4), 611–5. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11916748

Masterjohn, C. (2007). Vitamin D toxicity redefined: Vitamin K and the molecular mechanism. Medical Hypotheses, 68(5), 1026–1034. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.mehy.2006.09.051

Peat, R. (1999). Thyroid Therapies, Confusion and Fraud. Retrieved from www.raypeat.com/articles/articles/thyroid.shtml

Prior, J. C. (1990). Progesterone as a bone-trophic hormone. Endocrine Reviews, 11(2), 386–398. http://doi.org/10.1210/edrv-11-2-386

Watts, N. B., Adler, R. A., Bilezikian, J. P., Drake, M. T., Eastell, R., Orwoll, E. S., & Finkelstein, J. S. (2012). Osteoporosis in men: an Endocrine Society clinical practice guideline. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 97(6), 1802–1822. http://doi.org/10.1210/jc.2011-3045

Why you really shouldn’t be giving up sugar in the New Year.

It’s that time of year again, the silly season is upon us and plenty of people using inaccurate words such as detox are thrown around like Christmas wrapping paper. For many, the New Year is associated with dietary restrictions, born out of a period of over consumption from the festivities. May of those decisions such as stopping sugar or in particular fruit, as part of the so-called ‘detox ‘ is probably one the poorer choices that people do during this period of fad dieting. So it’s time to put the record straight on how to detox, or more appropriately how to maintain detoxification processes efficiently.

Detoxification and its suggested three phases, like most of the processes in the body is energy/nutrient/hormone dependant. Therefore the ability to detoxify efficiently is regulated by the amount of energy available and influenced greatly by how well your hormones function. The thyroid gland for example, is key to maintaining energy and this means energy for the liver to function. Detoxification is just one of the many functions of the liver, which also include glucose production and storage and the maintenance of adequate cholesterol.

The CDR or cell danger response suggests an evolutionary response to insults that affect the human body (and in particular cellular function) from a variety of sources. These can include:

  • Viral
  • Bacteriological
  • Chemical
  • Parasites
  • Electromagnetic stress
  • Physical and psychological trauma.

The net effects of the CDR can be suggested as a protective mechanism that stiffens cell membranes, perhaps to protect other cells, a decrease in processing of many nutrients and other compounds such as metals, and a decrease in metabolism. Whether this down regulation of function is protective or a result of the damage inflicted remains to be answered. Increased oxidative stress to how the body’s cells function can decrease the ability to generate energy using oxygen. Cellular respiration (ability to use oxygen to provide energy) using oxygen and carbohydrate remains the most efficient system for generating energy. Increased stress decreases the ability to utilise carbohydrate as a fuel. Other compounding factors with the CDR are a change to the gut bacteria, which can increase the fermentation of carbohydrates. So called beneficial bacteria such as Lactobacilli can produce lactic acid that disrupts the cells of the digestive system and increase the amount of gut damaging endotoxin.

For many the over indulgence will increase factors such as endotoxin, making them feel low, irritable and poor energy and sleep. An increase to neuro- transmitters such as serotonin and histamine, will exacerbate these issues and decrease sleep quality. The New Years resolution brings about a restriction of calories and eating less, burdening the digestive system less. People often make the assumption (one of many) that cutting out sugar has caused this miracle change but it may simply be the decrease in food itself. Perhaps it’s the lack of calories and the increase in adrenaline, much like the runners high, which makes people feel great?

For some, the equation of increased movement with less calories that is often employed at this time of year will have a good effect. For many others, and in particular, those who have a cell damage response, that is being resolved, this equation seems to have little effect. The decrease in available energy, to a cell that struggles to maintain adequate energy output, will find the move more, eat less, scenario a challenge.

Ketogenic diets often have great short-term effects for weight loss. In the long term a ketogenic remains a stressed energy state requiring the need for more cortisol, a decrease in carbon dioxide (decreasing the amount of available oxygen for use) and a less efficient form of energy production. Those who have a large amount of weight to lose, potentially expose the metabolic system to increased stress by oxidising fatty acids.

The stressed body requires carbohydrate. Low blood sugar states require a balance of carbohydrate (with fat and protein), to maintain optimal detoxification you need carbohydrate. Unfortunately with the fear mongering on social media you can often observe the following.

  1. Sugar feeds and causes cancer.
  2. Sugar is addictive

Here’s the thing. There is not any scientific proof to validate those statements. The primary fuel for any cell is glucose, even in cancer cells, if sugar is not available, it will generate energy from protein. Otto Warburg’s research has often been misinterpreted to suit inaccurate memes. Damage to the respiratory function of the cell is often the source of mutagenic aspects of cellular/mitochondrial (energy producing cells) that potentiates the growth of cancer.

The sugar is addictive study; well if you look closely at the study you will see that sugar activates the same reward centre of the brain such as sex, exercise and receiving gifts. The science of addiction is beyond the scope of my expertise, however if you have someone that cannot regulate energetic processes that well, they may seek out adequate energy, with sources of easily processed carbohydrates. It would appear that insulin sensitivity becomes an issue when there is an excess of energy.

Are you eating too much? Or is it simply that you cannot process the energy available? Well, if you eating less and moving more but weight, energy, sleep, libido or emotional balance aren’t improving. Then you know which one it is.

I am not suggesting here is that you should over eat sugar and carbohydrates. Much like, I wouldn’t NUTRITIONsuggest overeating broccoli, or drinking too much water.

Either way removing the protective capacity of carbohydrates to create balance is probably not the way to go.

Adrenal Fatigue or Reductionist Thinking?

adrenal  

Here is the first part of my article, which published in the May 2014, Womens Health and Fitness Magazine.

Adrenal fatigue or reductionist thinking?

Often, being given a distinct diagnoses that can relate to modern living can   make sense to us, a modern condition that makes sense of the hectic lifestyle and the symptoms that we have been experiencing. Over the last decade there has been much literature on a so  called 'Adrenal fatigue', whose symptoms are wide reaching from fatigue, digestive dysfunction, weight and sleep issues.

Walther Canon and Hans Seyle, probably the most prominent  scientists to study and interpret the mechanics behind, adrenaline, cortisol and the stress response, showed that when  rats were exposed to high levels of stress, they developed issues such as ulcers, intestinal bleeding and then finally death. The common suggested auto immune diseases that are becoming more prevalent, such as intestinal hyper-permeability or leaky gut can therefore be interpreted as symptoms of chronic stressors.

The premise of adrenal fatigue works something along these lines.

  • You are exposed to stress
  • You produce stress hormones (Alarm phase)
  • Your body returns to normal
  • You become stressed again on a regular basis
  • You enter the adaptation phase
  • You constantly maintain the stress response through permanent exposure
  • The adrenal glands become exhausted
  • Suggestion that you have adrenal fatigue or exhaustion phase

There are many problems with this interpretation and deduction of adrenal fatigue, and how many practitioners treat this reductionist diagnosis.  If your adrenals were truly fatigued, you may not actually be with us anymore and ultimately be dead. Cortisol which is produced by the adrenal glands, is the primary hormone that directs immune function, inflammation and is involved in virtually all aspects of body function. Certainly the terms hypocortisolemia, too little cortisol and hyper, too much cortisol make sense, and that is what a typical adrenal stress test tells us. Are we producing too much or not enough cortisol , on that particular day, based around a suggested norm?

Cortisol does go up and down, and probably outside of suggested arbitrary norms especially if you experience or engage in the following:

  • Excessive physiological or structural stress, intense exercise without adequate rest.
  • Psychological stress
  • Diet or fail to eat enough calories, eating too much may also contribute over time
  • Eat a so called healthy diet based upon current guidelines
  • Fail to get adequate sleep.
  • Chronic exposure to environmental pollutants

The longer one stays in a state of chronic stress the more compromised all aspects of body function become. This can ultimately result in hormone, immune and metabolic systems dysfunction.

The positives from treating the aspects of adrenal fatigue are a compliance of those suffering from the suggested condition, to address aspects of why they have got to this current state of affairs. Overworking, too much or too little exercise, not enough sleep and psychological stress recognition can be aspects that can be changed with great effect.

To create effective change, should we not consider other aspects of function that would treat the root cause, rather than plaster over the symptom? Lets take a look at the cross over between symptoms of both adrenal and thyroid dysfunction, which have roots in energy and digestion. You may start to notice that there are many symptoms that you may experience a mixture of both and to highlight adrenal fatigue alone is problematic. The thyroid gland supports energetic process’s and when this becomes compromised we call on the adrenal glands to act in a supporting role. Addressing energy, metabolism and digestion, should be the target of any lifestyle or therapeutic interventions.

Adrenal symptoms Thyroid symptoms
Fatigue

Difficulty sleeping

Low blood pressure

Clenching teeth

Dizzyness

Arthritic issues

Crave salt

Sweats a lot

Allergies

Weakness

Afternoon crash

Need to wear sunglasses

Anxiety

Weight gain or loss

Difficult to lose or gain weight

Nervousness/anxiety

Constipation

Hair loss

Poor energy/fatigue

Feel cold hands and feet

Mentally sluggish

Morning headaches

Seasonal sadness

Poor sleep

 

 

 

 

However treating adrenal fatigue in isolation with adaptogenic herbs, restriction of sugar and other stimulants as is often the case, may be unwarranted and most importantly ineffective in resolving these issues. Treating any system in isolation is reductionist and often gives you at best, reductionist results. The complex interaction of the Hypothalamus-Pituitary-Adrenal-Thyroid-Gonadal axis is a system that helps our body manage many global aspects of our body's function and therefore addressing adrenal balance leaves a gaping hole in your treatment strategy. Consider that the adrenals and in particular cortisol production can be a slave to the your environment, nutrition, exercise and other lifestyle choices. Take stock, address what may be affecting your stress hormone production, If these factors can be changed do so. Stress is a double-edged sword. We need a certain amount of stress to improve our physiological function. Constant exposure to stress decreases our biological state.

Raising biological wholeness such as energy levels, cognition and increasing balance throughout the hormonal system can give much better results than focusing on the adrenals. Remember that the adrenals and ultimately cortisol production elevate in response to, what you eat, or fail to eat, the environment, psychological and physiological stress. All of these aspects are changeable.  In the next article I suggest some strategies that can be used to improve energy and lower adrenal stress.

Nutrition and Exercise dogma

Dogma creation If you haven't yet met someone who has recommended you either some form of diet or a type of exercise, you are unique, in fact a real rarity, and somewhat lucky.

The fitness and wellness industry is awash with much dogma, often created by short term ideologies, that in long term may be harmful to ones health. A friend sent me a link to a simple yet effective graph from Keith Norris's blog  on chasing performance goals and their impact on health.  This got me thinking about the fields that I work in and how much of the recommendations are riddled with dogma and lack critical thought processes.

There's often a reason for this dogma existing and for many it is due to the anecdotal gains that can be experienced in the short term. Here are just a few reasons why:

  • High carb to low carb
  • Eating grains to not eating grains
  • High meat eater to vegetarian
  • Sedentary to high intensity exercise
  • Modern SAD to Paleo
  • Regular diet to juicing

There are plenty more and the point to be made is, some positive gains can be made in the short term, change to metabolic markers, restriction in excessive calories, weight loss and a variety of other markers. From the diagram above you can observe that whenever there is a change to the input of a system, change can occur and especially when there has been little variance in the past. As change occurs and an almost linear increase in perceived health markers also occur, a Zone of Optimisation and resultant dogma often ensue.

'This really worked for me, and it will do for you, trust me!'

Is the problem for many people, those often short term gains, on the way up on your performance curve, may actually start falling sooner than you think.

For the performance exerciser, poor movement, compensation and ultimately pain will ensue.

For those to the new diet, great results could  turn into stagnation, weight gain and a host of metabolic disturbances.

Is it working for you? Well do you:

  • Have good digestion?
  • Have deep restorative sleep?
  • Balanced energy?
  • Healthy libido?
  • Balanced emotions
  • Good stress response

If you don't, you may just be coming down from that peak of physiological and biochemical gains. When might it happen, 1, 2 or even 5 years down the line perhaps?  Hysteresis or a systems memory can be changed with ease if there exists, little underlying metabolic damage and a reduction of factors that increase resistance to repair  that system. Supporting metabolic processes should be first and foremost.

Understanding that fitness is not always a healthy pursuit and paying attention to markers that increase vitality should be a goal, and be pursuant to any fitness goal.

Move, play, eat, digest and sleep well.

 

Aspirin- Another mis-understood anti-oxidant?

Conventional nutrition teaches us that our diet should be abundant with antioxidants or the re-classified redox molecules such Vitamin B, C, E glutathione and the like. And it’s not a bad idea too, especially as the body is bombarded with insults on a daily basis in the form of xenoestrogens, toxins, soot in the air, dirty water and all sorts of complex chemicals hidden in our foods. A healthy diet and high nutrient consumption is essential in preventing damage to our DNA through reactive oxygen species or ROS which can contribute to oxidation of fats and other compounds, which contributes to the aging process and exposure to disease development.

Aspirin is one such compound that is often overlooked in the fight against cancer and aging and was a target of the pharmaceutical companies marketing campaign to discredit its benefits, when they decided to bring out a COX 2inhibitor. COX 2 inhibitors help to supress the production of prostaglandins that can be responsible for inflammation, cell degradation, pain and the like. It shouldn’t be lost on anyone that Aspirin which is salicylic and ascetic acid is a natural product that cannot be patented. Therefore it has often been the goal of business lead institutions to discredit many natural substances that cannot be lucratively pursued.

One of the many benefits of Aspirin is its ability to supress lipid peroxidation which is usually mediated by consumption and storage of polyunsaturated fatty acids. When these are stored as body fat in the form of triglycerides and then released in an attempt to stabilise blood sugar levels large amounts of oxidative stress can occur and the use of Asprin, vitamin C and vitamin E can help suppress this form of stress that is heavily linked to heart disease and cancers.  Some of the many unwanted effects of Aspirin such as gastrointestinal stress have been recorded when exceptionally high doses of aspirin have been used in laboratory experiments.

The use of Aspirin shouldn’t be discounted in the fight against disease prevention, however supplementing with Vitamin K would also prove to be beneficial.  To find out more about aging and disease prevention get in touch.

1. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0891584900004251

2. Ascorbic acid enhances the inhibitory effect of aspirin on neuronal cyclooxygenase-2-mediated prostaglandin E2 production.

Candelario-Jalil, Eduardo and Akundi, Ravi S. and Bhatia, Harsharan S. and Lieb, Klaus and Appel, Kurt and Munoz, Eduardo and Hull, Michael and Fiebich, Bernd L. (2006) Ascorbic acid enhances the inhibitory effect of aspirin on neuronal cyclooxygenase-2-mediated prostaglandin E2 production. [Journal (Paginated)]

Peat, R. Nutrition For Women. 1993.

http://raypeat.com/articles/aging/aspirin-brain-cancer.shtml

Why are polyunsaturated fats and oils so dangerous?

Polyunsaturated fats/ fatty acids or PUFAs have been suggested as being a safe food source for many years and many have even touted as being protective for the heart. Saturated fats have been outcast as the villain as the marketing purse of seed manufacturers often outweighed the gain that could be had by the protective more stable fats of coconut and palm oils.

Because the molecular structure of PUFA’s are less stable than saturated fats when heated they become carcinogenic.  Many studies favoured by the seed industry have favoured the analysis of so called good and bad cholesterol or LDL’s and HDL’s as a marker for the so called healthy effect of vegetable and seed oils.  A factor overlooked as part of this education is that high HDL levels can be interpreted as an auto immune process in action and cancerous states can be correlated with high HDL levels.  Heat alone will not cause PUFA’s to become unstable, overtime these oils can become rancid and when consumed cause lipid peroxidation . Think of all those warehouses of nuts that have been sitting around for months or years before being consumed, which are then often roasted and the PUFA’s within them oxidised.

The problem is that when all of these oils are consumed they cause the production of Reactive Oxygen Species or ROS and lipid peroxidation which causes large amounts of stress to cellular DNA which can be responsible for genetic mutations which can lead to aging, cell destruction and cancers. Ray Peats work on the damage caused by PUFA’s is very well documented.

Many commercially consumed foods such as tortilla chips (which mostly are derived from genetically engineered crops that have been covered in harmful pesticides) have been fried in these oils causing a dabble whammy of oxidative stress and insult to the human organism. People often think that by eating healthily they are able to not worry about small details such as fats and have often been falsely convinced that butter/ghee/ coconut and palm oils and that, high fat diets are the causative link in heart disease and heart attacks.

From a skin health perspective, unstable fats such as PUFA in the skin may be problematic when exposed to excess amounts of ultraviolet light. This recent blog explains the mechanisms.

Dealing with ridding the body of dangerous PUFA’s stored in body fat stores can be achieved with the right diet plan and ameliorating the dangerous effects of lipid peroxidation can be achieved with supplementation such as Vitamin E, B’s,  Asprin  and others.   Below I have highlighted a list of oils  that are ideal for cooking with and the others should be avoided.  To find out more about restoring your body to optimal health please get in touch. Balanced Body Mind

Approximate polyunsaturated fats/fatty acids- PUFA content of various oils and fats:  (taken fromIntegrative/med)

Evening Primrose oil (81% PUFA) Hemp oil (80% PUFA) Flax oil (72% PUFA) Grapeseed oil (71% PUFA) Chia oil (70% PUFA) Safflower oil (75% PUFA) Sunflower oil (65% PUFA) Perilla oil (63% PUFA) Corn oil (59% PUFA) Soybean oil (58% PUFA) Pumpkin oil (57% PUFA) Walnut oil (55-63% PUFA) Cottonseed oil (50% PUFA) Sesame oil (41-45% PUFA) Canola oil (30-37% PUFA) Rice bran oil (36% PUFA) Beech nut oil (32% PUFA) Peanut oil (29-32% PUFA) Pecan oil (29% PUFA) Brazil nut oil (24-36% PUFA, 24% SAFA) Pistachio oil (19% PUFA) Cashew oil (17% PUFA, 20% SAFA) Almond oil (17% PUFA, 8% SAFA) Duck fat (13% PUFA, 1% cholesterol)                 Use but try to go for safer oils below Lard (12% PUFA, 41% SAFA, 1% cholesterol)  Use but try to go for safer oils below Filbert oil (10-16% PUFA) Avocado oil (10% PUFA) Macadamia oil (10% PUFA, 15% SAFA)

Safe cooking oils Goose fat (10% PUFA, 1% cholesterol) Palm oil (8% PUFA, 50% SAFA) Olive oil (8% PUFA, 14% SAFA) Butter (4% PUFA, 50% SAFA) Ghee (4% PUFA, 48% SAFA, 2% cholesterol) Cocoa Butter (3% PUFA, 60% SAFA) Coconut oil (2-3% PUFA, 92% SAFA, 0% cholesterol) Palm kernel oil (2% PUFA, 82% SAFA)

Kick ass pate

Tommo’s Chicken Liver pate (al orange!)  Gluten and dairy free

Clients are often asking me for recipes for different foods, so until I manage to write my own cookbook this should go some way to appeasing them. I often actively encourage clients to make use of organic organ meats, especially the liver as it has a good amount of protein and vitamin A amongst others and assists in thyroid function, gene transcription, eyesight and immune system function. We often used to consume a lot more of the whole animal (see previous posts on gelatin) to glean more nutrients that balance the consumption of muscle meats alone.  This pate dish is great to take along to work and have with carrots or sticks of cucumber and the best part its gluten free. I also made this dairy free as I am not handling casein/dairy to well at the moment but you can substitute the coconut oil with butter and cream if you so wish. Dairy often gets a bad press but if your gut can tolerate it isn’t a food that should be restricted from your diet for long periods

Here’s what you need:

Chicken livers, Half a roasted squash, 2 oranges, Coconut oil, Maple syrup, Thyme, 1 small red onion, Salt & pepper, 2 cloves of garlic, Dried chilli.

Here’s what you do….                                                                                    

  • Soften the onions with a large dollop of coconut oil in a big pan
  • Add the chicken livers and brown off                                                                 
  • In a mortar and pestle grind down  the  garlic adding thyme, chilli, salt and pepper
  • Squeeze two fresh oranges and add to mortar, spoon around the edges to get  the paste
  • Add  half of roasted squash and a gulp of syrup with the contents of the mortar to thelivers
  • Cook for another 10 minutes, so that the squash has become part of the juice of the livers
  • Once the livers are cooked and there is little or no blood oozing from them take off the heat
  • Mix in a blender and add another large dollop of coconut oil       until it’s looking like a paste
  • Pour contents into a glass or ceramic bowl
  • Allow to cool, then place into a fridge to set

I think this goes well with some buckwheat crisp breads, with nori seaweed on top, or with some vegetables, if you prefer. Whatever you do it tastes great and will help to give you variety that tastes pretty good.

Remember good food with the right type of exercise goes along way to healing your gut and mind, get in touch if you experience pain, fatigue, energy, sleep, skin and other problems.

Modern nutrition its effects on you and your children

After my recent holiday in cornwall, it really hit home how deviations from proper nutrition really is affecting the worlds population particularly the UK. On a five minute walk from the car to the beach, we counted 70 clinically obese individuals and stopped counting as the numbers just seemed to keep rising. One of the most worrying factors that we should all consider is the significant impact that poor nutrition is having on our children, not just feeding them but pre conceptual nutrition is paramount. One of the many issues that can be seen in the children of all of the unhealthy parents that I saw, were children with abnormal head and face growth, overcrowded dental arches, and mouth breathers who will most likely be facing a life of ill health due to poor nutrition.

You only need to look at the research of Weston A Price, a dentist who toured the world in the early thirties and recorded may physical features of indigenous tribes, such as teeth, dental arches and cranio-facial growth. It was found all of the most isolated of cultures from Eskimo’s, Swiss, African tribes and may others, even outer hebredian communities, when feed with traditional, natural food sources, there was virtually no incidence of disease, dental problems or many of the other health issues associated with modern living. In fact the nutrition that had been in place forso long influenced the genetic make up for many thousands of years.

He noted that in these tribes for every 100 teeth assessed less than 0.1 % had the need for a dental filling. He then went to similar tribes of people that were located nearer to westernised cultures and found that many of the people who had been exposed to modern refined foods had  on average a 33%  need for fillings. He also observed many abnormal facial growths, poor dental formation and even reduced intelligence levels, as well as many modern diseases.

The point that I am trying to make, is that we all hold the key to the health of our children. The food that we eat has the capacity to create healthy children and moving away from foods such as sugar, commercially farmed grains, pasteurised dairy products and processed salt is the key to creating healthy children. Eating good quality organic foods is a must and getting adequate amounts of meat based proteins with each meal is a step in the right direction.

Eating cereal with pasteurised milk each day is an easy way to develop a food intolerance to grains and dairy! You can check out the article on my website, whats all the fuss about posture? at www.balancedbodymind.com.

You can also read a really good article by Paul Chek at

http://www.ppssuccess.com/FoodforThought/ArticlesbyPaul/ArticlesbyPaulChekDetailPage/tabid/496/selectmoduleid/2144/ArticleID/45/reftab/104/Default.aspx?title=Food_and_Exercise:_The_Drugs_of_Choice

Eating healthy is harder to do these days because those that produce food aren’t concerned with making you and your children healthy but more with making a profit! Do you know how many foods are laced with poor food choices such as soy, aspartame and other artificial sweeteners, gluten, processed and other denatured foods?

Too many to name on this blog! Taking a look at the way you eat should start today not tomorrow. An easy way to help you decide what to eat is, if it wasn’t around 10, 000 years ago don’t eat it! We all like to have a treat l so following a 80/20 % rule (80% good food choices to 20 % poor) is a good start. More often than not with clients who have significant health problems it may be that a 100% rule has to be adhered to in order to build health.

My advice is don’t wait until you or your children get sick to make a change for the better.

health and happiness

Keith

www.balancedbodymind.com

Your Insides!

As well as working with clients on issues such as pain relief, strength and conditioning or improved sports performance. One of the areas I have to look at is how an individuals gut is working. This often involves a pre screen to give me an idea of how much inflammation is taking place within the small or large intestine or how well the immune system is functioning. As these ultimately have an impact on exercise programs. Believe it or not you have great control over how strong your digestive tract and immune system functions. The quality and type of food and water is a choice that you can make to strengthen these systems.

More often than not when I recommend a lab test, I have a good idea of what will come back. I haven’t tested one client this year that has not tested positive for fungus or parasite overgrowth, usually both. These bacteria and organisms have shown that they can be pathogens in the disease process. It may sound something that you think would only happen in a foreign country but you can pick up such infections from drinking tap water, exposure to anti-biotics, even organic food if you fail to wash it properly.

There are many things to be considered when wanting to heal your gut, such as following a metabolic type diet, a variety of supplements and removing key culprits that inflame the gut such as gluten and dairy products.

It may take between 3 months to a year to heal yourself, but it is such a short space of time for you to notice big changes in energy, improved emotions, focus, motivation, libido, sleep quality and many more issues.

If you ever experience a dip in any of the above factors seriously consider having a Gasto-intestinal panel to rule out any complications.