carbon dioxide

How to keep your energy chain maintained. Protective compounds.

How to keep your (electron transport) chain-2.png

How to keep your energy chain ( electron transport or ETC) running might not be something you think about, but if you are concerned about being healthier, this is an often overlooked area of maintaining health. It came as a huge disappointment to find out that the historical use of a false tooth compartment to hide cyanide tablets (for soldiers and spies) to commit suicide was pure fantasy. Although cyanide hidden in glasses appears to be more likely, the role of cyanide to induce rapid death is indisputable. We are at a time where industrial pollutants are at an all time high and cyanide being one of those pollutants, might not induce a theatrical foaming of the lips and contorted last throws of life (as seen in many an old war movie); it may induce a slower, less dramatic affect on cell function and efficient biology over time.

Cyanide is certainly ubiquitous in the industrialised environment but unknowingly for many, trying to achieve a ‘healthier’ balanced diet, cyanides are present in many foods favoured by the health conscious.

There are more than 2500 plants associated with cyanide content, these include almonds, millet, lima beans, soy, spinach, bamboo shoots, and cassava roots (which are a major source of food in tropical countries), cyanides occur naturally as part of sugars or other natural compounds. Cassava consumption (especially so in poorer countries) is associated with the neurological, irreversible disease called Konzo (Nzwalo & Cliff, 2011). Some other major sources of cyanide are:

Seeds/kernels of apples, apricots, plums, peach and nectarine, millet, almonds, flax seed, , spinach, sorghum gluten free flour like cassava often used to replace normal flours. Simply type in cassava poisoning into a search engine and you'll see some cases where dozens of people from the same meal have died from a so called bad cassava. Most likely it was the poor preparation and failure to remove the cyanide from the cassava that lead to these numerous deaths. In one case in the Philippines in 2005, 27 children died in such a manner.

Other cyanide sources include vehicle exhaust, releases from chemical industries, burning of municipal waste, and use of cyanide-containing pesticides (Jaszczak et al 2017) and the more obvious smoking.

Excess cyanide (ions) is able to disrupt the efficient production of energy that is produced through the electron transport chain/mitochondria (energy producing cells) where water, carbon dioxide and energy are end products. The loss of this function often creates a decreased ability to utilise carbohydrate effectively and the result can be an excess of lactate, which diminishes cell function further and creates hypoxia. Lactic acid seems to be getting some praise of late but it is the hallmark of inefficient energy production, as observed in the so called Warburg state seen in cancer (5). As cyanide levels increase cellular death occurs through increased lactic acidosis. This is the death throw that you see our actors who have crunched down on that mythical hydrogen cyanide capsule. It's also observed as a cause of death to the unlucky Private Santiago in A Few Good Men, where he has a rag with cleaning fluid, stuffed into his mouth creating a not to dissimilar occurrence.


You want the truth? You can't handle the truth but it might be that a combination of dietary cyanide and pollutants might not be as healthy as you think.

If there’s a ubiquitous source of cyanide and other pollutants in the environment does it make sense to have plenty of cyanide containing foods? Let’s not take this out of context. Here and there - having foods that have some levels of cyanide in should pose no problem to a healthy individual but what if your diet contains a regular supply and also contains plenty of vegetables that contain goitregens or foods that slow down thyroid function (and also contain cyanide) it may be problematic. Many people seem to promote a diet high in raw green vegetables, nuts, seeds, often low in adequate protein and often deficient in adequate energy/carbohydrate. In this instance the so-called healthy diet, in a highly polluted area becomes a burden not a provider of energy to promote optimal thyroid health, energy and liver enhancer (energy, detox, hormones etc.).

Chris Masterjohn’s report - Thyroid toxins, highlights the out of context suggestions of nutritional science evaluation of compounds in a test tube compared to a real world scenario.

The line that divides nutrients from toxins is often thin and equivocal. Since any given chemical may react in any number of ways in a test tube depending on the other chemicals with which it is combined, it is often possible to prove such a chemical to be both a nutrient and a toxin.

If a diet is to be considered healthy, it should meet the body’s energetic demands without reducing its function. A healthy energy chain ensures that carbohydrate is metabolised efficiently without an excess of lactic acid production.

The abundance of glucosinolates found in broccoli, cauliflower (and other brassica vegetables) and other cyanide like food sources combined with other environmental pollutants may pose substantial problems over time. Heavy metals like mercury, which are also increasing environmentally can decrease selenium and iodine uptake creating another algorithm for decreased function.

cell enhancers

cell enhancers

Caffeine can be considered a useful compound for preventing excess uptake of metals and may go someway to explain the anti-oxidant and other positive effects observed in neurological degeneration diseases such as Alzheimer’s and dementia (Liu et al., 2016). Other compounds like methylene blue can be seen in the next diagram that promote a better energy chain.

" As I have shown in my earlier days , one can knock out the whole respiratory chain by cyanide and then restore oxygen uptake by adding methylene blue  which takes the whole electron transport chain over between dehydrogenases and  O2 ."   Albert Szent Györgi

You can also reduce the risk of excess cyanides in foods through heating, boiling and other forms of processing but given that the zeitgeist is as raw, wholesome and as gluten free as one can be, it’s unlikely that this occurs in the upwardly mobile food neurotic.


  1. Jaszczak, E., Polkowska, Ż., Narkowicz, S., & Namieśnik, J. (2017). Cyanides in the environment—analysis—problems and challenges. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 24(19), 15929–15948.

  2. Liu, Q.-P., Wu, Y.-F., Cheng, H.-Y., Xia, T., Ding, H., Wang, H., … Xu, Y. (2016). Habitual coffee consumption and risk of cognitive decline/dementia: A systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. Nutrition, 32(6), 628–636.

  3. Nzwalo, H., & Cliff, J. (2011). Konzo: From poverty, cassava, and cyanogen intake to toxico-nutritional neurological disease. PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases.

  4. Masterjohn, C. Thyroid Toxins Report. 2007


  6. Szent Györgi, A. Introduction to a Submolecular Biology. Academic Press. 1960.

Scar tissue - is it an issue?

Is scar tissue really an issue? Alongside myself, scars may be one of the most under appreciated and neglected structures, when it comes to assessing aspects of an individual's pain and movement limitations.   For many people, which include physicians, surgeons and often the owners of said scars, there’s an acceptance that the scar has healed and is not involved in any process of pain, strength or movement dysfunction. Dr’s and surgeons often assume that time enables optimal healing and patients simply forget about the previous trauma. Time may be a great healer but the healing is only partial - the nervous system always remembers. Writing this, reminds me of a client who had filled in all historical injury and trauma that he had experienced on my intake forms, which might have been a factor in his chronic back pain. It wasn’t until he took his top off and under questioning revealed that he had  donated his kidney to his brother some twenty years ago. It wasn't a big deal though as it was twenty years ago apparently.

This sequence of events has been summarised as homeostatic, inflammation, granulation and remodelling phases (1) which are undergoing symbiotic relationships with other structures and dependant on energetic, endocrine and other functions of the individual, which often depend on environmental stimulus. During the granulation and proliferation phase, sub-phases, which include collagen deposition, remodelling of blood vessels and tissues occur. It’s likely that during these phases the health and energetic response of the individual will dictate the capacity to regenerate and may also influence the layers of dysfunction that are present with scar tissue.

“ In childhood, wounds heal quickly and inflammation is resolved, in extreme age, or during extreme stress or starvation, wound healing is much slower and the nature of inflammation and would closure is different. “Ray Peat.

Unsaturated vegetable fats, serotonin and estrogen promote collagen synthesis and resulting fibrosis and keloid scars are associated with these states (3). Perhaps the capacity to organise energy and regenerate are instrumental in decreasing the associated dysfunctions that can be found in all scar tissue? Most Drs that I have spoken to just assume that after 12 weeks the scar has generally healed and that normally activity can be resumed. As a rule, there is no thought given to mechanical, pain sensitising or emotional constraints induced by the presence of the scar. It’s generally accepted that most scars have 80% tensile strength of the previous structure, but again might that too be a product of the quality of healing available to the individual?

“ The amount of disorganised fibrous material formed in injured tissue is variable and depends on state of the individual and tissue situation. “

In hypothyroidism, high levels of the pituitary hormone TSH (thyroid stimulating hormone) are known to stimulate fibrosis (1) Maintaining adequate thyroid hormone production promotes DNA transcription, optimal energy production, carbon dioxide production and probably decreases the proliferative effects of 'estrogenic' states that can be attributed to keloid scar formation.

The bigger the scar, the more likely the associated dysfunction? Perhaps the more disorganised tissue that exists, the increased likelihood of fuzziness between the central nervous system and output to structures associated with that scar. In scar tissue that has not been assessed or treated, it's relatively easy to induce weakness or stress to the surrounding tissues by a variety of stimulus which might include thinking and different types of pain,  touch or vectors of stretch that create neurological chaos or threat to to the individual.

Good therapy should allow for conversations between the clinician and patient that create stimulus that may (or may not) affect the output of surrounding structures associated with the scar. Poor feedback mediated by the scar might involve the following:

Emotional: Aspects of recall of the event that the individual finds upsetting.

Nociception/pain: First and second pain, visual or auditory, crude/fine touch, tickle/itch temperature, stress or recall od suffering responses to stimulus. (Involve pain feedback related to spinothalamic, spinotectal, spinohypothalamic and spinomesencephalic tracts)

Mechanical: Pressure, rebound, stretch, joint mechanoreceptors and other responses to tissue and structures. (Related to Golgi, Pacini, Ruffini and other dorsal column feedback pathways.)

Improving the optimal healing of scar tissue might involve aspects such as adequate carbohydrate, proteins, sunlight (or red light), carbon dioxide, thyroid, progesterone, vitamin A and E. Avoiding phytoestrogens and low carbohydrate diets would also be prudent.

Despite optimised nutrition and endocrine function, it’s likely that many scars leave some artefact that prevents the nervous system communicating with tissues. C - sections, episiotomies, appendectomies, laparoscopies and most surgeries, injuries or trauma leave a trace that needs to be resolved with the right therapy. Inhibition can be purposeful but restoration might need a little nudge from therapies like proprioceptive deep tendon reflex (P-DTR).


  1. Kim, D., Kim, W., Joo, S. K., Bae, J. M., Kim, J. H., & Ahmed, A. (2018). Subclinical Hypothyroidism and Low-Normal Thyroid Function Are Associated With Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis and Fibrosis. Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology, 16(1), 123–131.e1.



Osteoporosis- could your exercise, nutrition and medical advice be better?

Osteoporosis and bone health, like many other aspects of optimal biology is a product of an organisms inputs and reactions to environmental stimulus. Osteoporosis is a condition like others, where prevention is often easier than the cure but perhaps the cure has been overcomplicated? Osteoporosis is a multifactorial musculoskeletal disease that is usually associated with the ageing process, decreased bone mineral density (BMD) and its tendency to fracture easily.       It’s clear that a number of factors that can be maintained throughout life to reduce the incidence of Osteoporosis in both men and women. Before we review those and compare with current guidelines, here’s some background info on the subject.

Primary Osteoporosis is the age related decline in men at around 70 and suggested as being a postmenopausal state, induced through the decreased production of estrogen in females. This last point is accepted in medical literature as the main cause of osteoporosis in females but may be severely flawed (more on this point later).

Secondary osteoporosis can be related to the following factors

Hypogonadism - testosterone/estrogen deficiency
Endocrine disease - Cushing’s syndrome, acromegaly, thyrotoxicosis, Addison’s disease and hyperparathyroidism
Dietary or assimilation deficiencies of calcium, vitamin K, vitamin D and other nutrients
Inflammation-rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus and ankylosing spondylitis
Neoplasms- Myleoma, lymphoma and leukaemia
Reduced physical activity
Medical drugs - corticosteroids, antiretroviral, antipsychotic, chemotherapy, hormone therapy, nicotine and excessive alcohol
Family history/genetics

The financial burden from osteoporosis generally, will increase from 98 Million Euros to 121 billion with proportional increases of 27.5 million to approximately 34 million people between the years 2010 to 2025 (Hernlund et al., 2013). Despite these huge burdens there appears to be a lack of well-designed educational programs that are geared at prevention of osteoporosis through non-pharmacological means.

The supplementation of vitamin D and calcium are well documented in osteoporosis strategies but a strategy to avoid these states are diets containing adequate calcium, vitamin A, K, magnesium (and others) adequate sunlight and moderate exercise.

Ok, so there’s a problem, it’s big business and there’s a lot of great info on how to avoid it right? Well no and here are the major points why I believe its not.


 Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) is the recommended choice for osteoporosis diagnosis, serum calcium, phosphate, creatinine (with GFR) alkaline phosphatase, liver function, 25 OHD, total testosterone, estrogen CBC and 24 urinary calcium excretion are recommended for the interpretation of secondary causes of osteoporosis (Watts et al., 2012).


Estrogen loss is touted as the most significant factor in decreasing BMD yet it’s action only retards resorption, or the removal of calcium from bone. Estrogen tends to inhibit the action of osteoclasts which ultimately reduce BMD. It’s the main reason the introduction of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) was considered as the primary treatment until its long-term use was found to induce clotting and cancer in women. So estrogen does not reverse Osteoporosis, it prevents further bone loss.

A variety of studies have suggested little influence of testosterone in males on BMD and that low estradiol levels combined with elevated sex hormone binding globulin appear to increase the loss of BMD (Cauley et al., 2010). A point worth noting from the correlation associated with higher estradiol levels and decreased BMD loss is that all participants in the study were recorded as having increased weight and BMD, which may influence skeletal modelling due to increased bone-loading parameters. Perhaps too much emphasis has been given to the suggestion that estrogen and its primary role of tissue proliferation amongst others, which should follow the course of age related decline?

Progesterone on the other hand has been shown to be a bone trophic or building factor that increases mineralisation of BMD, via osteoblasts (Prior, 1990). Stress increases cortisol and decreases progesterone binding at the receptor, with a preference for the glucocorticoid. Ray Peat (1997) points out that cortisol causes bone loss and its widely accepted that progesterone has an “antiglucocorticoid” action, it is reasonable to think that progesterone should protect against bone loss, and that it is a progesterone deficiency after menopause which is a major factor in the development of osteoporosis.

Thyrotoxicosis has been suggested as a mechanism of bone resorption but this appears inaccurate-  Ray Peat does a much better job at explaining this.

Medical treatment

Bisphosphonates are the first line medical treatment for treating osteoporosis and show modest changes to hip and vertebral BMD over 3 years. There use may come at a risk. Gastro intestinal side effects are well documented and in some the increase of osteonecrosis of the jaw has been observed. In some, the long-term use has been shown not only to increase the rate of fragility fracture but also to inhibit the healing process. It should be noted that adequate calcium and vitamin D in the diet are essential for bisphosphonate effectiveness


 There tend to be two well-known stances to the fitness industries approach to nutrition. One, the transformation approach, where limiting of nutrients, particularly dairy and carbohydrates and intermittent fasting are the norm. Another, the holistic warrior whose consumption of chia seeds and all things green, raw and limiting of dairy and sugar again,  may be a factor into lowering BMD in later life. Calcium is an essential nutrient for bone health and dairy is indeed a great source of calcium. Here’s an old blog on the subject.

 It’s clear that adequate vitamin D is a nutrient that is important in BMD maintenance. It regulates calcium levels, decreases the production of parathyroid hormone, which is a potent resorption factor of skeletal calcium when calcium or vitamin D are low. Here are the main points that relate to diet.

  • Vitamin D in isolation and particularly high doses increases fracture rates (Janssen, Samson, & Verhaar, 2002)
  • Unless vitamin D is accompanied by adequate calcium, BMD can decrease further.
  • Vitamin K2 can prevent the calcification of soft tissues and help improve blood calcium levels (Masterjohn, 2007)
  • High meat and diets high in pulses and beans can have a negative effect on calcium levels due to their high phosphate levels.
  • Unless you assess other key nutrients like magnesium and the factors discussed above
  • Low diary intake can be associated with poor bone health.
  • The low carbohydrate, raw green and seed eating diet suggested by holistic health practitioners may contribute to lower BMD.


Regular exercise has been touted as a significant factor in maintaining muscle mass and increasing BMD. But is the type of exercise that people are doing, increasingly in their younger years, contributing to better or worse outcomes to BMD. For bone to form adequate carbon dioxide (CO2 ) is essential. Some exercise regimes are so challenging, they contribute to excess levels of metabolic acidosis (lactic acid) and passing of CO2 from the body (worth noting that sugar consumption can also help to increase CO2 production) . Perhaps for exercise to be effective it should be light to moderate, with adequate rest periods that don’t mean that the participant is lying in a pool their sweat and vomit.

Walking, strength training with adequate rest, yoga, Pilates and other modes of moderate exercise appear most suitable for modest improvements to bone health but the diet and hormone factors are key.

It’s clear that osteoporosis is in the rise but it can be reversed. But instead of heading advice like cutting out dairy, eating lots of uncooked vegetables and training to complete exhaustion. There are more suitable mechanisms for improving bone health


Cauley, J. A., Ewing, S. K., Taylor, B. C., Fink, H. A., Ensrud, K. E., Bauer, D. C., … Orwoll, E. S. (2010). Sex steroid hormones in older men: longitudinal associations with 4.5-year change in hip bone mineral density--the osteoporotic fractures in men study. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 95(9), 4314–23.

Hernlund, E., Svedbom, a, Ivergård, M., Compston, J., Cooper, C., Stenmark, J., … Kanis, J. a. (2013). Osteoporosis in the European Union: medical management, epidemiology and economic burden. Archives of Osteoporosis, 8(1–2), 136.

Janssen, H. C. J. P., Samson, M. M., & Verhaar, H. J. J. (2002). Vitamin D deficiency, muscle function, and falls in elderly people. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 75(4), 611–5. Retrieved from

Masterjohn, C. (2007). Vitamin D toxicity redefined: Vitamin K and the molecular mechanism. Medical Hypotheses, 68(5), 1026–1034.

Peat, R. (1999). Thyroid Therapies, Confusion and Fraud. Retrieved from

Prior, J. C. (1990). Progesterone as a bone-trophic hormone. Endocrine Reviews, 11(2), 386–398.

Watts, N. B., Adler, R. A., Bilezikian, J. P., Drake, M. T., Eastell, R., Orwoll, E. S., & Finkelstein, J. S. (2012). Osteoporosis in men: an Endocrine Society clinical practice guideline. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 97(6), 1802–1822.

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