Serotonin

Better gut health with less bacteria?

Can you have better gut health with less bacteria? There’s an old saying in the integrative health world that ‘ Death begins in the colon.’ These were the words of the 1906 Nobel science award holder Elie Metchnikoff, a Russian scientist who did much to elaborate on the mechanisms of embryology, immunology and other aspects of health and disease. These days there’s much that has been written about the micro biome and the suggestion that diverse microbes within the bowel are an important factor in health. How we need to eat plenty of fibrous and fermented foods for better health. But how true is this and are more bacteria necessary for better digestion and longer life? “The retention of faecal matter for several days very often brings harmful consequences. Organisms which are in a feeble state from some cause are specially susceptible to damage of the kind referred to.” (Metchnikoff & Metchnikoff, 1908)

Ok so you aren’t likely to die anytime soon from being constipated for several days, you might feel like crap (excuse the pun). But what if the repetition of constipation is over years? We have seen that hypothyroidism and constipation is clearly linked and can induce small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (Lauritano et al., 2007). An inability to remove the waste products is a particular burden on a stressed system.

"Not only is there autointoxication from the microbial poisons absorbed in, cases of constipation but microbes themselves may pass through the walls of the intestines."

This description of endotoxin and other bacterial end products damaging and permeating the intestinal wall is a well-known modern concept of leaky gut or intestinal hyper permeability. Metchnikoff’s describes the putrefaction (think fermenting mass of stinky stuff) of foods within the bowel that lead to the damage described in a permeable gut lining that allows bacteria and endotoxin into the blood stream.

There’s a theory that I have, as it’s clear that not all people have constipation. Many present with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) like states, loose and perhaps a product of irritation induce by high serotonin and histamine (which by keeping to a minimum can also improve sleep and mood). It’s plausible to suggest that some people have already gone through a constipated phase induced by either a low energy or thyroid state, which may give way to a high adrenaline state over time. The lack of movement in the bowel for some can set the scene for future IBS reactions due to the accumulative damage induced by constipation, putrefaction, bacterial end products and increased irritation. Some clients have noticed that they previously went through a constipated phase before they arrived at their suggested IBS.

So if the current theme of recommending probiotics, raw and fermented foods is in vogue. What does that mean for the digestive system. I remember a newsletter from Ray Peat suggesting that animals born in a sterile environment generally live longer and have a higher metabolic rate. This in itself is a hard, near impossible feat to achieve outside of a sterile laboratory but consider this - Most babies are grown within a womb that does not contain any bacteria, as soon as they come through the birth canal and into the world at large. The bacterial management of life comes into play and had it come any sooner, may have had disastrous consequences. Other observations of Metchnikoff related to the longevity of birds, which have a high metabolic rate and limited intestinal flora -

‘Even in birds of pray which feed upon putrid flesh, the number of microbes in the intestine is remarkably limited. I have investigated the case of ravens which I fed flesh which was putrid and swarming with microbes. The droppings contained very few bacteria, and it was remarkable that the intestines had not the slightest smell of putrefaction. Although the opened body of a herbivorous mammal, such as a rabbit, gives off a strong smell of putrefaction, the body of a raven with its digestive tube exposed has no unpleasant smell. The absence of putrefaction in the intestine is probably the reason of the great longevity of such birds as parrots, ravens, and their allies.’

Metchnikoff also states that despite the absence of bacteria, their organisation and metabolism may be the primary driver for long health. Therefore if we were to keep bacterial interference at bay might we be better at living longer lives by improving our gut health? Our metabolism and cellular health is the key to prevention of many disease states. Extra bacteria may just be another factor that our immune system has to contend with and may be at the heart of autoimmune issues. From a comparative biology standpoint many other herbivorous animals don’t live as long as omnivorous animals. Horses, cows, and sheep live very short lives in comparison to other mammals that eat a wide range of foods. The main exception being the elephant, which has an extremely large intestine like other vertebrates.

Probiotics and fermented foods provide a mixed bag of research(Goldenberg et al., 2015). In many studies bacterial infections and digestive issues have not been resolved by probiotics. They do seem to be particularly effective at reducing bacterial/food poisoning cases and decreasing the diarrhoea like state by a day or two. Primarily this acts as a competing organism in the battle of the bowel and maybe why faecal implants have been shown to beneficial in the short term for some.. Even beneficial strains of bacteria such as lactobacillus can be problematic in excess due to the high levels of lactic acid leading to d-lactate acidosis, decreasing our gut health and overall wellbeing.

After all increased bacteria equals increased immune system responses and constant battles, for some there’s only so much that a faltering metabolism and immune system that one can take. Providing easily digested nutrients that limit bacterial growth and metabolites, that doesn’t burden a compromised digestive system seems prudent. In hypothyroidism gastric secretions such as hydrochloric acid are often lowered, further compromising digestion. Easily digested nutrients equals easily available source of energy and macronutrients.

To read more on how to combat these issues, to improve your gut health, digestion, mood and energy, this article is extended in the members’ area or there's also some information in this blog from 2017.

References:

Goldenberg, J. Z., Lytvyn, L., Steurich, J., Parkin, P., Mahant, S., & Johnston, B. C. (2015). Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. The Cochrane database of systematic reviews (Vol. 12). http://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD004827.pub4

Lauritano, E. C., Bilotta, A. L., Gabrielli, M., Scarpellini, E., Lupascu, A., Laginestra, A., … Gasbarrini, A. (2007). Association between hypothyroidism and small intestinal bacterial overgrowth. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 92(11), 4180–4184. http://doi.org/10.1210/jc.2007-0606

Metchnikoff, E., & Metchnikoff, I. I. (1908). The Prolongation of Life: Optimistic Studies. Our post human future. Consequences of the biotechnology revolution. Retrieved from http://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=U8bgKGvZJV0C&pgis=1

Sleep, stress, sugar. Eat sugar for better sleep.

Onset of sleep

Onset of sleep

Can you improve sleep and decrease stress by eating sugar for better sleep? If you put sleep, stress and sugar in the same sentence, most people think they have already put the three together with something like; too much sugar causes stress and affects your sleep. If you read on you should find yourself advantageously aware of sleep biology and why consuming sugary foods before sleep, and indeed if you wake up are the answer for a deeper nights sleep.

Ah a good nights sleep. You remember one of those don’t you? As a father to 3 children I have had my fair share of sleepless nights but a recent 11 hour sleep whilst my kids slept for 12 hours, recently reminded me of why everyone should strive for better sleep and the common approaches that people tend to fail to implement. A couple of years ago I studied a short course on the neurobiology of sleep with the University of Michigan and I found it useful as it correlated with aspects of serotonin function that Ray Peat (7,8) had talked previously talked about.

Generalisations of sleep biology phases are:

Sleep latency - Getting your sorry arse to sleep

NREM sleep - Keeping your sorry arse asleep

REM sleep - Deep arsed sleep

Wakefulness - Wake your sorry arse up

One of the primary driving factors of the onset of sleep or sleep latency is the production of adenosine. Caffeine is a well-known antagonist of adenosine and therefore many a wise word about not drinking caffeine after 3-4 pm as it has a half-life of 6 hours are well heeded (yes I know there are some of you that metabolise caffeine really well after that time with no impact on sleep, STOP SHOWING OFF).  Avoiding caffeine though out the day isn’t necessary and caffeine is a widely mis-understand compound that shows many beneficial effects, if you follow the rules for its consumption.

Often there is much focus on the role of melatonin and sleep induction and structures like the suprachiasmatic nucleus and waking. Melatonin does indeed promote sleep but so does adenosine and I think the supplementing of melatonin misses key biological functions that induce sleep more effectively and without the negative effects associated with its use.

Serotonin and melatonin confusion

Sleep wake compounds

Sleep wake compounds

Just like the holistic health practitioner that suggests that coffee causes adrenal fatigue (it doesn’t but that’s another blog by itself), some practitioners recommend the use of 5HTP - tryptophan supplements (tryptophan converts to serotonin) for better sleep but this is misguided for the following reasons. It’s true that melatonin is a hormone of sleep and that it is derived from serotonin and that serotonin has a small but limited role in inhibiting the cholinergic system responsible for keeping you in an alert, thinking state. In the diagram below and born out of many studies is that serotonin is a powerful compound of wakefulness that synergises with histamine and the histaminergic system to bring you out of the deeper REM sleep, and start the process of waking you the hell up. The diagram from Brown et al (Brown, Basheer, McKenna, Strecker, & McCarley, 2012) highlights the complexities of the sleep wake compounds but also useful for highlighting serotonin's role (5HT) in the excitatory waking state. It’s also a great overview of the many areas and compounds that aren’t addressed in this blog. One thing that should become clear is that the neural structures controlling sleep are many and so are the interactions between hormones and other compounds of wakefulness. My advice below is not complete but merely a reflection of some of the simple changes that you can do (and which I have done with many clients) to create better sleep and recovery. 

Here are a few pointers on serotonin and melatonin.

  • Many people are aware of the fact that at least 95% of the body's serotonin is produced in the intestines - namely the enterochromaffin cells.

  • People associate serotonin as a hormone of calmness. 1) It’s not a hormone 2) well known side effects of serotonin excess are insomnia and anger.

  • Serotonin induces spasticity of the colons smooth muscle tissues

  • Eating excess muscle meats increases serotonin (as does eating poorly digestible foods), inflammation and can contribute to increased wakefulness by synergising with histamine.

  • Melatonin may be implicated in seasonal affective disorder due to increased levels in darker winter days. Sunglass wearing may pose similar issues (Alpayci, Ozdemir, Erdem, Bozan, & Yazmalar, 2012)

  • Supplementation with melatonin during the day can induce disruptive changes to fertility and also suppress thyroid hormone (Creighton & Rudeen, 1989).

  • Peak concentrations of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) occur at night and might be suggestive of thyroid hormone suppression induced by melatonin and other hormones. The pituitary responds by increasing TSH to bolster thyroid hormone supply.

Of course there are other compounds which include acetylcholine, GABA, oxycretin, histamine and many other areas of the central nervous system that could be mentioned but I have tried to stick to the mechanisms that can be changed and promote change in a short space of time.

If you find it hard to drift off, these are my suggestions as to why this might happen:

  1. You are eating foods that promote intestinal inflammation and increase serotonin and histamine.

  2. You are exposed to excess stimulus such as blue light, Wi-Fi or other source.

  3. Your blood sugar levels are not balanced and promote the stress hormones that liberate glucose from stored fats and proteins - adrenaline-glucagon-cortisol.

If you wake up at night the following might be also be an issue

  1. You are eating foods that promote intestinal inflammation and increase serotonin and histamine.

  2. Your blood sugar levels are not balanced and promote the stress hormones that liberate glucose from stored fats and proteins - adrenaline-glucagon-cortisol.

Point 2 may be a significant factor for many people and available efficient glucose production may be one of the most under-rated factors in both the onset of sleep and maintenance of sleep. Waking up to urinate at night is a feature of the diabetic like state. Poor blood sugar regulation requires, that instead of relying on blood and liver glucose stores, the stress response be relied upon to liberate energy from stored fats. This is an inefficiency that requires a stressed state. You should not be waking at night to go for a pee.

Morning Cortisol profile

Morning Cortisol profile

You can see from the average nighttime cortisol profile that cortisol generally starts to rise around 2 am, steadily increasing prior to the onset of waking. If your ability to regulate blood sugar levels is compromised this can increase the burden to blood sugar regulation and increase waking further. The REM phase of sleep uses a similar amount of glucose as the waking state.

Here are some useful tips that I use with clients to promote better sleep and recovery.

  1. Take a look at the previous post on resolving digestion issues. This helps to take away some of the factors related to serotonin and histamine excess.

  2. If you are exercising hard, low carb, busy parent or whatever form of stress and therefore don’t manage your blood sugar levels, you don’t manage your sleep. If you struggle getting to sleep a sweet drink like milk and honey (yes the old wives tale works like a charm). A glass of fruit juice with gelatin is also good. Any pattern with something with sweet with a little protein/fat is useful.

  3. Add some salt - increased stress burdens the adrenal glands, usually though thyroid hormone suppression. Salt is wasted in this state and so is magnesium. Salt spares magnesium, so adding a little salt also helps magnesium regulation.

  4. If you wake during the night. This can be common when trying to resolve these issues as liver function and hormone regulation take a little time to adjust. Therefore having something sweet by the bed can help to help you re-enter sleep. Squeezy honey tube or pouch of juice with straw I find useful so that the juice goes straight down rather than covering my teeth.

  5. I have often found that progesterone and thyroid play a key role in sleep and many clients have benefitted from resolving the states of low progesterone/thyroid, which may not have resolved with food alone.

  6. Optimal blood sugar regulation often starts with eating breakfast to decrease adrenaline, glucagon and cortisol (Jakubowicz et al., 2015)(Levitsky & Pacanowski, 2013). Drinking a kale smoothie or coffee on an empty stomach is not the best way to break your fast and set up the day.

  7. Of course aspects of sleep hygiene related to no phones, WI-FI etc goes without thinking and go as far as turning your router off at night.So armed with some facts that you can decrease stress and improve sleep by eating sugar in the right amount, you can go and experiment for yourself.

References:

  1. Alpayci, M., Ozdemir, O., Erdem, S., Bozan, N., & Yazmalar, L. (2012). Sunglasses may play a role in depression. Journal of Mood Disorders, 2(2), 80. http://doi.org/10.5455/jmood.20120529055051

  2. Brown, R. E., Basheer, R., McKenna, J. T., Strecker, R. E., & McCarley, R. W. (2012). Control of Sleep and Wakefulness. Physiological Reviews, 92(3), 1087–1187. http://doi.org/10.1152/physrev.00032.2011

  3. Creighton, J. A., & Rudeen, P. K. (1989). Effects of Melatonin and Thyroxine Treatment on Reproductive Organs and Thyroid Hormone Levels in Male Hamsters. Journal of Pineal Research, 6(4), 317–323. http://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-079X.1989.tb00427.x

  4. Jakubowicz, D., Wainstein, J., Ahrén, B., Bar-Dayan, Y., Landau, Z., Rabinovitz, H. R., & Froy, O. (2015). High-energy breakfast with low-energy dinner decreases overall daily hyperglycaemia in type 2 diabetic patients: a randomised clinical trial. Diabetologia, 58(5), 912–919. http://doi.org/10.1007/s00125-015-3524-9

  5. Levitsky, D. A., & Pacanowski, C. R. (2013). Effect of skipping breakfast on subsequent energy intake. Physiology and Behavior, 119, 9–16. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.physbeh.2013.05.006

Online:

7. http://raypeat.com/articles/articles/serotonin-depression-aggression.shtml

8. http://raypeat.com/articles/articles/serotonin-disease-aging-inflammation.shtml

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How to improve sleep-wake cycles.

Do you need to improve sleep? Why is it that sometimes, with the best intentions of going to bed early, we either find ourselves struggling to enter a sleep cycle, or wake up, deep in the hours of darkness? The prominent stress researcher Robert Sapolsky (Why Zebras don’t Get Ulcers) writes fondly of his near death experiences, of little sleep from the arrival of his newborn child. It’s no surprise that security and intelligence operatives use a lack of sleep to disorientate prisoners. Just one nights lack of sleep from me and I will tell you anything! Despite the will to nod off, why is it that many people suffered from poor sleep, or struggle to enter sleep cycles?

Before I delve into some brief hormonal issues that can be manipulated to ensure a deeper sleep it’s worth noting that darkness itself is a stressful experience and we produce many restorative hormones during sleep to combat the metabolic stress of darkness. Therefore one essential component of adequate sleep is exposure to sunlight on a daily basis. This ensures uptake of vitamin D and exposure to the deeper penetrative orange and red lights, which help to restore metabolism and healing of cells. An old blog on light therapy.

Over the years I have found the following issues associated with poor sleep.

  • Low blood sugar levels
  • Increase in compounds of wakefulness
  • Exercise late at night
  • Excessive work stress/blue light exposure
  • Exposure to EMF-electromagnetic stress and Wi-Fi
  • Poor sleep and its vicious cycle
  • Emotional Stress

There are several models to be aware of when it comes to sleep theory and the phases of sleep are categorised as

NREM – Non rapid eye movement- pre REM sleep.

REM - Rapid eye movement- this is the deep restorative part of sleep Active wake

Neurotransmitters and hormones associated with sleep:

Acetylcholine – AcH is the neurotransmitter associated with Rapid Eye Movement or REM sleep.

Serotonin – 5HT this neurotransmitter along with HA is associated with wakefulness.

Norepinephrine/Noreadrenaline - Ne - Hormone of wakefulness.

Gammaminobutyric Acid – GABA. GABA’s role in sleep is well documented but levels vary depending on location of the brain. It’s role is known in decreasing wakefulness and also decreasing deeper REM sleep and involved in producing wakefulness. Histamine- HA involved in wakefulness.

Hypocretin Orexin- PCT /O Involved in wakefulness.

Adenosine- AD involved in entering NREM sleep.

Here is a rough depiction of key Neurotransmitters of REM and NREM sleep. Other neurotransmitters of wakefulness such as Histamine, Serotonin and noreadenaline (hormone) are not depicted but are elevated in waking state and should be lower during sleep cycles. It’s worth noting that the use of serotonin in mood related disorders such as depression is a key agent in insomnia like states.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Common sleep disorders

Insomnia:  The inability to sleep restfully and I would categorise a good nights sleep from 6-9 hours depending on your own needs. The ability to enter deep sleep is dependant on many factors such as hormones, neurotransmitters, stress and available energy. It’s worth noting that the regenerative aspects of REM sleep and brain function have been shown to use as much glucose as when awake. Maintaining adequate available energy is key to getting sound-nights sleep.

Sleep apnoea: inability to enter REM sleep due to issues associated with optimal breathing. Obesity and sleep apnoea do seem to correlate and there is a suggestion of structural abnormalities in a small section of people.

The role of sleep in disease prevention

Sleep's role in psychiatric disorders, depression, metabolic disease and addiction are well documented. A key feature of a lack of sleep, besides on-going fatigue and failure to regenerate is the elevation of adrenalin and cortisol. Elevated levels of cortisol are well known to decrease thyroid function, which can have a significant effect on levels of circulating thyroid hormone and energy production (key to regulation of sleep). The mechanism can tie in with its pervasive actions on management of blood sugar levels. Another noted effect from sleep loss is that we tend to overeat more when tired, which could impact weight gain (and if thyroid is part of the vicious cycle, weight loss becomes increasingly difficult).

Lack of quality sleep can therefore be responsible for an increasing amount of deleterious conditions, such as hypothyroidism, diabetes and obesity, other hormone dys-regulation and cardiovascular disease. Ascertaining whether the issue initially stems from a hormone imbalance can be key in resolving sleep wake issues.

Drugs

There are a variety of drugs on the market that help to improve onset of sleep, however if you seek to improve the biological mechanisms of sleep and perhaps look to the list suggested below, you may find that your sleep improves, without the need for medication.

Cognitive behavioural therapy

The role of CBT in reducing Insomnia has shown effective results even more so than prescriptive medications. Whilst the treatment is not determined whether it effectively targets the mechanics of insomnia its success suggests provides a more desirable approach than long term insomnia medication.

What can you do?

  • Understand the link between production of inflammatory neurotransmitters such as Histamine and Serotonin and seek to lower them. This may be through diet adjustment or exposure to problematic chemicals/hormones.
  • If you get to sleep but wake up, this may be due to poor available energy. Maybe from a low carb diet, low thyroid function and poor production of energy. You may find having something light like a glass of milk with honey, or fruit juice with gelatin may help out. Salt also helps to decrease adrenalin production
  • Wi-Fi, blue light exposure, electromagnetic stress all play their part in interfering with stress and how the cells function. Stopping their use several hours before sleep can help. Do turn off Wi-Fi in house and no phones or electric devices by your bed.
  • Avoid stimulus such as caffeine or exercise in the evening, if you have sleep issues. Caffeine decreases production of adenosine.
  • If under emotional stress, a slow walk before bed may be a useful idea combined with ensuring adequate blood sugar levels are met.

References:

Neurobiology of Sleep. Course notes. Duke University. 2015.

Peat, R. From PMS to Menopause. Female Hormones in Context. 1997

Sapolsky R. Why Zebras don’t get Ulcers. St Martins Griffin. 1998

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2941414/

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3443758/

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27091535

 

Muscles, pain, hormones and other stuff.

As a therapist who works within the fields of pain, movement, energy and digestion I have seen my share of pain and muscle dysfunction in clients. As my exposure to these situations increase, I realise more than ever, that the muscles are very rarely the problem. Specific muscle dysfunction usually boils down to spindle cell

Thyroid pic

dysfunction and notably Nuclear Bag Fibres (NBF) and Nuclear chain Fibres (NCF). The primary roles of these structures are related to stretch and contraction of muscle function. There can be other factors involving neuro transmitters, involved in nocicpetion such as glutamate, utilised in the withdrawal reflex and often referred to as first pain, (also known as Neospinalthalamic tract located in the Anterolateral system or ALS) and lasting, less than a tenth of a second. Problems can arise when the following pain pathway, called second pain (or Paleospinalthalmic tract also part of the ALS) has problematic feedback with first pain, this is mediated by Bradykinin.

Further complexities arise with serotonin and other structures associated with pain such as the Amygdala and Peri Aqueductal Gray (PAG) that are beyond the scope of this short blog. However a common, over looked feature of pain, may arise with hypothyroidism .

Low thyroid function can be classified effectively with assessment of a basal temperature test and a reading of between 36.6 and 37 degrees. Most blood tests designed to measure thyroid hormones such as TSH, T3, T4 and others, often do not reflect accurate function of thyroid hormone. This is often due to feedback loops between cellular function and the Pituitary gland. Some of the regular hallmarks of hypothyroidism are poor energy, weight gain, poor sleep, hair thinning, digestive dysfunction (constipation and also alternating loose stools), cold hands and feet and pain. Here's an old blog on thyroid and adrenalin issues.

Another assessment of thyroid function is the Achilles return reflex. When stimulating the myotactic reflex a hammer hits the Achilles tendon stimulating, the dorsi flexors or calf muscles. The response should be a quick return of the foot to it’s resting position but with low thyroid the foot returns slowly. Low thyroid output equals low ATP (Adenosine Tri Phosphate – the energy used by the mitochondria/cells). This low energy state does not allow for optimal contraction and relaxation. This is where we can see specific issues with NCF and NBF’s within the muscle spindle cell.

Muscle tendons and associated ligaments provide a feedback loop via the Golgi Tendon Organs or GTO’s. There’s potential for pre-existing GTO dysfunction to drive muscle dysfunction and vice versa. As far back as the 1960s symptoms associated with muscle disorder from low thyroid were.

* Weakness

* Cramps pain and stiffness

* Hypertrophy

* Myotonoid features.

A well-documented feature of hypothyroidism is muscular hypertrophied calf muscles and despite their size may often test weak to stimulation.

Muscle pain, may indeed not be muscle related, it may be due to many factors, suggested above and these may even be related to hormones and neurotransmitters. Many people often deal with muscle aches and pains by constantly focusing on mobility work but these structures continually return to their pre mobility work status (although this could also be an underlying stability issue). In reality there can be many factors that create dysfunction such as crude touch, vibration, nociception, Golgi, Pacini-pressure related structures and many more. But even after seeing a skilled therapist, these still don’t appear to get better, then addressing the chemical aspects of pain and function might be the next sensible thing to do.

References:

Armour Laboratories. The Thyroid Gland and Clinical Application of Medicinal Thyroid. 1945.

Ramsay I. Thyroid disease and Muscle Dysfunction. William Heinemann Medical Books. 1974.

Purves, D. et al. Medical Neuroscience. 5th Edition. Sinauer Assocates Inc. 2001

Starr, M Hypothyroidism Type II. Mark Starr Trust 2013.

http://raypeat.com/articles/articles/hypothyroidism.shtml

Calcium- Don't ditch the dairy.

Calcium - don’t ditch the dairy. Like every nutrient that we have consumed over the last millennia or ten, there are reasons why some foods appear more beneficial than others. Using poor tests like Igg4 sensitivity/allergy analysis many ‘experts’ have convinced us that one of our most potent foods is causing us more harm than good. I am on the bandwagon that as far as my food goes (meat and dairy) grass fed, free range and organic remain a better choice for all concerned. Hormesis can only take us so far when it comes to pesticide and pollutant exposure and the individuality of tolerance and adaptation remains a knife-edge for many.

Don't ditch the dairy

Without getting into the arguments of which type of cows produce what compounds. This topic is merely aimed at why people have issues with calcium uptake and is the problem really a dairy issue?

Many people who have had blood tests are often told to take extra calcium supplements in response to presenting with low serum calcium. However the issue of lowered calcium in the blood may have nothing to do with the amount of calcium that they are ingesting. Here are some potential mechanisms:

• Low levels of vitamin D: Vitamin D is a well-known nutrient/hormone like substance that allows for the adequate uptake of calcium into bones and teeth. amongst many other functions which include immune system function. (This synergistic relationship can be observed in reverse also) • High phosphorus/phosphate diet. In addition to the added phosphates to foods and crops. Current recommendations suggest increasing portions of grains, beans and peas, which not only contain phosphates but also contain phytates, which can block mineral uptake. Low magnesium is also an issue. • Increased estrogens and xenoestrogens that increase the stress response and cause calcium to leach from the bones into soft tissues. A decrease in available progesterone can decrease bone density. • Poor reabsorption factors such as low intake of vitamin K2 • An actual calcium deficiency from low calcium intake • Excessive exercise which can be due to inadequate calcium and poor carbon dioxide retention. • Inability to absorb calcium from the digestive tract, low stomach acid levels/hypochlorhydria and damage to villi/intestinal lining, which can be observed in celiac but increasingly with intestinal hyper-permeability, endotoxin and chemical induced damage. • Decreased blood albumin levels which bind calcium. Digestion and dehydration issues mainly. • Regulation of PTH or parathyroid hormone.

Osteoporosis is on the rise but its increasing prevalence is not due to low calcium intakes but due to many complex interactions, between stress, pollutants, low sunlight exposure, excessive exercise and nutrient levels. The common reductionist approach is to throw the same nutrient at the problem in larger amounts and hope that this so called ‘deficiency’ is corrected.

It's worth noting that elevated serotonin levels in the blood are responsible for bone less. An increase in serotonin  can be viewed with both a temporary spasticity of smooth muscles tissues and loose or watery stools. The role of serotonin is to increase evacuation of the bowel, mediated by an increase in its production from the entero chromaffin cells in the digestive tract, where some 95% of the bodies own supply is created. A diet high in nuts and seeds, which contain serotonin are likely to irritate the digestive tract. From an evolutionary survival perspective, this allows for seeds to be passed out from the bowel without being digested, ensuring plants survival. Increased aggression and irritability have been noted in elevated serotonin levels, which also correlates with a decrease in bone density. Ensuring adequate calcium in the diet during these times is therefore essential.

When phosphorus increases and there is a lack of vitamin D, PTH increases to balance out the need for increased calcium, which is taken from bones and teeth. In essence much of the calcification of arteries and soft tissues can be attributed to this situation. Some of the signs that can be observed with low calcium levels are:

• Muscle cramps • Nose bleeds • Soft fingernails • Frequent cold sores, rashes • High or low blood pressure • Irritability • Fevers with mild colds

Administering calcium supplements to those with calcium deficiency is much like talking over someone before they have a chance to speak. You only here there initial words but fail to here what they are truly saying.

Much of the marketing and sales of supplements these days are suggestive that our food does not give us the nutrients that we need and that we need to stay plugged in to the rattle of supplement bottles opening daily. When in fact if we just strive to improve digestion and cofactor optimisation this simply isn’t the case. In the case of dairy, when we flippantly talk about super foods, when you look at the nutrients provided from dairy, it is indeed a food with plenty to say for itself, particularly in the situations of growth, stability and anti-stress.

References:

1. Christodoulou, S. , Goula, T., Ververidis, A., and Drosos, G. Vitamin D and Bone Disease. Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 396541, http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/396541 2. Weatherby, D. Blood Chemistry Analysis. Bear Mountain Publishing. 2002.

Online:

http://raypeat.com/articles/articles/phosphate-activation-aging.shtml