cancer

Why fruit juice won’t give you cancer.

But it can protect you against it.

But it can protect you against it.

You may have noticed the carbohydrate fearing headline stating that - "One small glass of juice a day raises cancer risk, " yesterday. Do you know when you’ve been tangoed?

This is based upon the study by Chazelas et al (Chazelas et al 2019) and being used to justify the swathe of dogmatic headlines in the press.Apart from the study being based on food questionnaires (mean food log was 5.6 days over 5 years hardly conclusive) which are not reliable indicators of actual consumption, the authors suggest that the mechanisms that might drive the association are as follows.

1.    Excessive sugar consumption could contribute to obesity driven mechanisms. There's no doubt that excess carbohydrate, fat and protein contribute to obesity when an EXCESS of calories are consumed (and the other multifactorial issues associated with obesity.

2.    Sugar from juice contributes to increased glycaemic load and inflammation. This point doesn't add up because many fruit juices have a low glycaemic load, associated with anti- inflammatory responses (polyphenols, vitamin c, capacity to lower endotoxins, improve blood sugar regulation and cholesterol levels). Many grains have higher glycaemic loads and index than juices. So is this really a valid argument?

Of the 101, 000 or so participants the increased risk associated with sugary drinks was found in those who exercised less. In an important factor, if you combine over consumption and decreased activity. Another point that the authors suggest on sugary drinks is that additives to sweetened beverages like sodas could also contribute to risk. Indeed a valid point.

It starts with a hint of truth and a headline or meme tends to become written in folklore, the myth of the carbohydrate rich food churning out death in its path. These small, half or even quarter truths often disappear when you scratch beneath the surface. That’s why I actively encourage carbohydrate and specifically carbohydrate consumption in my programs. Even most people I have met rarely chug down large amounts of fruit juices in isolation and even if glycemic index\load were an issue, when you consume carbohydrate rich foods with proteins and fats, these concepts are somewhat irrelevant.

Orange juice (or any juices) is one of those foods that still seems to be getting a bad rap but many people who demean its nature often fail to look at the studies that have shown it to be protective. You might have heard...but the sugar levels or but it’s acidic. Just take a look at the tabloid’s permanent vilification of the simple juice drink, which is based on half-truths of small increased risk with limited data. To play devil’s advocate, there’s no doubting that some people with less money available have been seduced into purchasing more junk food. It’s cheap, it’s filling and it’s full of sugar, vegetable oils, preservatives, GMOs, fillers, emulsifiers, additives like flavouring, enhancers, gums and much more. Yet still, the sugar is the demon in this list. Not even the pollution that’s shown to increase cancer, heart diseases, diabetes and neurodegenerative diseases, it’s still sugar and even if you drink fruit juice, it’s the sugar that will kill you.

So, with that in mind let’s consider what a simple food like orange juice could do to hasten, I’m sorry I meant prevent neurological and metabolic decline. Let’s first add some context. It should be no surprise that if you just drink large amounts of juice on their own, without balancing their ability to enter the blood stream with fats and or proteins, it isn’t going to be as beneficial. This is also why throwing large amounts of sweetened fizzy drinks down one’s neck can be problematic. The Glycemic index becomes redundant when you add another food into the mix, therefore drinking fruit juices with fats and proteins helps to normalise blood sugar responses in isolation. So why orange juice? Here are just a couple of reasons

Lowering inflammation

Eating a variety of foods has the capacity to increase inflammatory and damaging agents like endotoxin. Endotoxin or lipopolysaccharides is well known to increase in high fat and carbohydrate meals, especially so when fibrous poorly digested foods are consumed. High fat diets also induce endotoxin, and this is well known to induce intestinal hyperpermeability or the more well-known leaky gut syndrome. Consumption of orange juice appears to significantly reduce the levels and effects of inflammation induced by endotoxin (Ghanim et al., 2010) . Unfortunately, many foods are often kept stable longer with additives like carrageenan and gums, which also promote increased endotoxin.

Attenuates metabolic dysfunction

 “ Despite media concern, daily orange juice consumption did not result in adverse metabolic effects, despite providing additional dietary sugars. Data from epidemiological and in vitro studies suggest that orange juice (OJ) may have a positive impact on lipid metabolism. “ (Simpson, Mendis, & Macdonald, 2016)

During times of stress, under eating or consuming foods low in carbohydrates the response is to liberate energy from stored fats in the form of triglycerides. As metabolism becomes compromised high levels of triglycerides are known to be present in blood sugar dysregulation. There’s much in the press to suggest that sugar from fruit juice consumption increases cardiac risk but there are many studies that suggest otherwise, with the observed effect being reduced triglycerides and cholesterol (Aptekmann & Cesar, 2013). The cardiac protective factors aren’t limited to orange juice alone, pomegranate and other juices also seem to offer similar results (Moazzen & Alizadeh, 2017)

Decreased carcinogen production

A very relevant and protective mechanism of orange juice (and others) and fruit peel consumption is the decreased risk of gastrointestinal cancers (Xu, Song, & Reed, 1993). Nitrates and nitrates are naturally occurring compounds found in a variety of foods. Nitrates are often used in preservatives and sodium nitrites are ubiquitous in preserved meats and have a significant relationship between cancers in many of the mucosal areas including the mouth, bowel and lungs.. Nitrates have been implicated in not just intestinal and stomach cancers but increasingly thyroid cancers (Hernández- Ramírez et al., 2009). This occurs through increases in N-nitroso compounds (NOC) which increase the capacity of cell mutation but there are extensive studies that show many classes of NOC inhibitors which include vitamin e and vitamin C that negate that risk.

Of course, for optimal effects, ensuring adequate protein and fats are consumed will always be beneficial. We’ve known that compromised blood sugar and insulin responses are rarely to do with consuming carbohydrates. Unless excessive eating and obesity are the association, there’s plenty more relevant relationships such as environmental pollutants and other stressors that show a clear effect on all aspects of metabolism and increased metabolic disease. Yet many people seem intent on shooting the messenger and vilifying protective carbohydrates such as fruit juice.

 

References: 

 1.    Aptekmann, N. P., & Cesar, T. B. (2013). Long-term orange juice consumption is associated with low LDL-cholesterol and apolipoprotein B in normal and moderately hypercholesterolemic subjects. Lipids in Health and Disease. https://doi.org/10.1186/1476-511X-12-119

2.   Chazelas Eloi, Srour Bernard, Desmetz Elisa, KesseGuyot Emmanuelle, Julia Chantal, Deschamps Valérie et al. Sugary drink consumption and risk of cancer: results from NutriNet-Santé prospective cohort BMJ2019; 366 :l2408

3.    Ghanim, H., Sia, C. L., Upadhyay, M., Korzeniewski, K., Viswanathan, P., Abuaysheh, S., … Dandona, P. (2010). Orange juice neutralizes the proinflammatory effect of a high-fat, high-carbohydrate meal and prevents endotoxin increase and toll-like receptor expression. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. https://doi.org/10.3945/ajcn.2009.28584

4.    Hernández-Ramírez, R. U., Galván-Portillo, M. V., Ward, M. H., Agudo, A., González, C. A., Oñate-Ocaña, L. F., … López-Carrillo, L. (2009). Dietary intake of polyphenols, nitrate and nitrite and gastric cancer risk in Mexico City. International Journal of Cancer. https://doi.org/10.1002/ijc.24454

5.    Moazzen, H., & Alizadeh, M. (2017). Effects of Pomegranate Juice on Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Patients with Metabolic Syndrome: a Double-Blinded, Randomized Crossover Controlled Trial. Plant Foods for Human Nutrition. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11130-017-0605-6

6.    Simpson, E. J., Mendis, B., & Macdonald, I. A. (2016). Orange juice consumption and its effect on blood lipid profile and indices of the metabolic syndrome; A randomised, controlled trial in an at-risk population. Food and Function. https://doi.org/10.1039/c6fo00039h

7.    Xu, G. P., Song, P. J., & Reed, P. I. (1993). Effects of fruit juices, processed vegetable juice, orange peel and green tea on endogenous formation of N-nitrosoproline in subjects from a high-risk area for gastric cancer in Moping County, China. European Journal of Cancer Prevention. https://doi.org/10.1097/00008469-199307000-00007

 

 

Estrogen and aromatase - Keeping the wolves from the door.

Estrogen and aromatase,  (and the  role of prolactin and a lack of progesterone) in cancer are well documented and so are the stimulatory effects of the neuro-endocrine (nervous system/hormones) disruptors termed xenoestrogens, which mimic the action and excess of estrogen (Kim, Kurita, & Bulun, 2013) (Mungenast & Thalhammer, 2014). Estrogen and notably estradiol/E2 is often measured by a standard blood test, which remains as problematic as other blood tests such as TSH, which I have previously described. “ At first, it was assumed that the amount of the hormone in the blood corresponded to the effectiveness of that hormone. Whatever was in the blood was being delivered to the “target tissues.” But as the idea of measuring “protein bound iodine” (PBI) to determine thyroid function came into disrepute (because it never had a scientific basis at all), new ideas of measuring “active hormones” came into the marketplace, and currently the doctrine is that the “bound” hormones are inactive, and the active hormones are “free.” Ray Peat

In addition to the obvious production of estrogen in the reproductive tissues, it’s possible to increase estrogen conversion via aromatase, an enzyme which converts androgens such as testosterone to estrogen, is one of the other main factors. Adipose tissue is a prime location for increased aromatase activity.

Another problem with measuring hormones in the blood is that it rarely accounts for the intracellular accumulation of hormones. Estrogen in excess in the cell, promotes fluid retention, swelling and causes an increase in calcium. Measuring pituitary hormones and in particular prolactin (PRL) may give us a better indication of the relative excess of estrogen due to estrogens stimulatory effect on the anterior pituitary and PRL.

PRL excess is associated with issues such as breast cancer, prostate cancer, resistance to chemotherapy, infertility in both men and women, male reproductive health and galactorrhea (Sethi, Chanukya, & Nagesh, 2012) (Rousseau, Cossette, Grenier, & Martinoli, 2002). Treating PRL excess, particularly linked to the most common form of pituitary tumour (1:1000), the prolactinoma is often treated effectively by the dopamine agonists Bromocriptine or Cabergoline. However, it’s not beyond the realms of possibility that prevention and treatment of excess PRL production, be achieved with decreasing synthesis and exposure to estrogens both endogenous and from external sources.

Myopic thinking.

Modern medical thinking and analysis has led us to a reduced proposition when it comes to diseases like cancer. Cancer is essentially a metabolic disease, and the proposed respiratory defect, the idea of scientist Otto Warburg, is often replaced by the mechanistic thinking of the receptor theory of disease. Estrogen receptors are one of the main evaluations for assessing types of cancer but the very essence of the testing leads us to an increased myopic line of questioning, failing to ask the necessary questions that underlie a persons health status.

If a city is being evacuated, its railroad transportation system, will be quickly “saturated,” and the impatience of a million people waiting for a ride wont make much difference. But if they decide to leave on foot, by bicycle, boat or balloon, in all directions, they can leave as soon as they want to, any number of people can leave at approximately the same time. A non-specific system is ‘saturable,” a nonspecific system isn’t saturable. The idea of a cellular “receptor” is essentially that of a “specific” transport and/or response system. Specific transporters or receptors have been proposed for almost everything in biology - for very interesting ideological reasons-- and the result has been that the nonspecific processes are ignored and supressed. Ray Peat

Solutions.

Sometimes there are minimal opportunities for people to change their environment. Perhaps creating more solutions to enable better conversations with the environment, is the most pragmatic solution available?

Maintaining the body’s production of energy by optimising thyroid production, suppression of TSH (thyroid stimulating hormone) and lowering of other stress hormones like ACTH, intake of carbohydrates, protein and adequate light can support the necessary energy needed for the liver and digestive system to enhance detoxification of estrogen and estrogen mimickers.  A sluggish, fatty or hypothyroid state of the liver, makes it difficult for estrogen to be excreted. In states of constipation, beta glucaronidase converts inactive estrogen to the active form.  Keeping both estrogen and aromatase low seems a step in the right direction.

Foods also have the capacity to enhance estrogen synthesis. Mushrooms have shown to be a potent inhibitor of aromatase enzymes and have the capacity to lower the systemic production of estrogen (Grube, Eng, Kao, Kwon, & Chen, 2001). However it’s important to note that mushrooms need substantial cooking to reduce the liver toxins present.

“The hydrazine-containing toxins that Toth and others wrote about are destroyed by heat. Since extracts made by boiling the mushrooms for three hours were very active, I think it's good to boil them from one to three hours.

If you want to know more about prepping mushrooms and soups, then check out the link below for The Nutrition Coach, who reminded me why mushrooms for lowering estrogen and a great source of protein will be helpful when consumed regularly.

  

References: 

Grube, B. J., Eng, E. T., Kao, Y.-C., Kwon, A., & Chen, S. (2001). White Button Mushroom Phytochemicals Inhibit Aromatase Activity and Breast Cancer Cell Proliferation. J. Nutr., 131(12), 3288–3293. Retrieved from http://jn.nutrition.org/content/131/12/3288

Kim, J. J., Kurita, T., & Bulun, S. E. (2013). Progesterone action in endometrial cancer, endometriosis, uterine fibroids, and breast cancer. Endocrine Reviews. http://doi.org/10.1210/er.2012-1043

Mungenast, F., & Thalhammer, T. (2014). Estrogen biosynthesis and action in ovarian cancer. Frontiers in Endocrinology, 5(NOV). http://doi.org/10.3389/fendo.2014.00192

Rousseau, J., Cossette, L., Grenier, S., & Martinoli, M. G. (2002). Modulation of prolactin expression by xenoestrogens. Gen Comp Endocrinol, 126(2), 175–182. http://doi.org/10.1006/gcen.2002.7789\rS0016648002977890 [pii]

Sethi, B. K., Chanukya, G. V, & Nagesh, V. S. (2012). Prolactin and cancer: Has the orphan finally found a home? Indian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism. http://doi.org/10.4103/2230-8210.104038

http://raypeat.com/articles/articles/pdf/Estrogen-Receptors-what-do-they-explain.pdf

http://www.thenutritioncoach.com.au/anti-ageing/how-i-prep-mushrooms-and-why-its-worth-the-bother/#more-2595

 

Estrogen and Progesterone

For the general public there is often no real need to understand what hormones are or what they do, unless faced with specific problems related to them. As hormones are affected increasingly by our environment, which includes: Food, air, water, physical and psychological stress, it seems that a basic understanding of problematic hormones can be helpful for maintaining or improving health. Before I attempt to give a brief overview of a complex subject, here are a few terms to be aware of, mainly related to female function.

Follicular phase- first 14 days of cycle to ovulation and increased production of estrogen, primarily E1

LH- Luteal phase, last 14 days, corpus luteum, which increases progesterone

Progesterone- Hormone of gestation, bone formation, anti clotting concerned with cell differentiation.

E1-E2-E3 – Estrogen classifications of Estrone, Estradiol and Estriol. Estrogen promotes growth and becomes problematic in the face of increased cellular division and changes or mutations.

Xenoestrogens – synthetic estrogen like compounds found in plastics, contraceptives, fuel and industrial waste. These have the capacity to increase estrogen levels in men, compounding issues related to testosterone function.

Progestin- synthetic progesterone. Lacking in the benefits of natural progesterone and increases unwanted symptoms.

CYCLEovul

Estrogen’s primary role is one of growth. It is used to stimulate growth of tissue, especially so in the endometrium. During the follicular phase estradiol increases and just before ovulation starts to decrease. Progesterone’s protective effects are enhanced via increased production of the corpus luteum.

Problems with excess estrogen have increased due to changes in diet, increased exposure to environmental pollutants and other factors that are not offset by increased production of progesterone. Below are just some of the actions of both estrogen and progesterone.

Effects of Estrogen Effects of Progesterone
·      Breast stimulation·      Endometrial proliferation

·      Increased body fat

·      Salt/ fluid retention

·      Clotting

·      Depression

·      Headaches

·      Decreased libido

·      Impairment of blood sugar

·      Reduced oxygen

·      Risk of breast cancer

·      Osteoporosis

·      Decreased thyroid

·      Increases CV issues.

·      Anti tumour effects·      Supportive to fertility

·      Sedative effects

·      Improves blood sugar

·     Decreases  Ovarian cysts

·      and Menopausal flushing

·      Removal of facial hair

·      Decreased Menstrual cramping

·      Improved auto-immune

·      Hormonal balance

·      Anti -Stress

·     Decreased arthritis

·      Promotes sleep

·      Thickens hair on head

 

 

 

Balancing blood sugar levels, particularly an issue during pre-menses, can be achieved with Progesterone. Hypoglycaemia is often present (especially so when engaged in exercise, low carbohydrate or calorie consumption) and particularly when oxidative damage occurs to cellular function, oxygen use is decreased and therefore a reliance on glycolysis, a sugar using energy system, which creates an abundance of lactic acid, occurs. Elevated levels of lactic acid are problematic, not only to cellular function but are also inefficient means of energy production. It’s transportation and conversion back to glycogen requires much more energy than it produces. Progesterone protects against estrogen’s anti-oxygen effects.

Progesterone is non-toxic even at elevated levels, however anaesthesia and euphoria has been recorded, along with changes to the menstrual cycle which can be noted as mainly positive. Symptoms related to PMS have often disappeared and its use is recommended only between ovulation and menstruation. Estrogen/progesterone balance can be achieved by supplementation, however diet can help to facilitate the change and serve to maintain the gains achieved with progesterone supplementation. In many cases decreased thyroid allows for excess estrogen in the body, via mechanisms of decreased energy to detoxify, which include liver and digestion mechanisms. The reverse can also be true due to increased estrogen decreasing thyroid function

Excess stress can be the cause of decreased progesterone and increased estrogen's, increased cortisol and decreased thyroid. The use of adequate protein within the diet and carbohydrates will ensure that thyroid is provided efficiently. Daily sunshine helps to promote optimal progesterone conversion, in addition to supplementation and those who live in areas with less sunlight should also consider progesterone supplementation.

During pregnancy, progesterone production can be one hundred times more than the amount seen during the premenstrual phase. A lack of progesterone during pregnancy has been associated with toxaemia. Symptoms include high blood pressure, excessive weight gain, oedema (fluid retention) and protein loss in the urine. If excess progesterone is available, the mother will simply use it, therefore an excess of progesterone would be preferred to a deficit and the likelihood of toxaemia induced by too little progesterone. Progestins seem to make many unwanted symptoms much worse

It is clear that decreasing exposure to environmental pollutants is helpful to lowering xenoestrogenic load. Foods that contain natural phytoestrogens can also affect estrogen/progesterone balance and where symptoms exist decreasing foods such as uncooked brassica vegetables, soy, nuts and seeds would be helpful in attempting to restore balance.

References:

Dalton, K The Menstrual Cycle.

Lee, J. Natural Progesterone, Multiple roles of a Remarkable Hormone. BLL Publishing

Peat, R. Nutrition for Women.

Tonilo, P.G. Endogenous estrogens and breast cancer risk: the case for prospective cohort studies. Environ Health Perspect. 1997 Apr;105 Suppl 3:587-92.

Online references:

http://raypeat.com/articles/articles/progesterone-summaries.shtml

http://raypeat.com/articles/articles/estrogen-age-stress.shtml