cancer

Estrogen and aromatase - Keeping the wolves from the door.

Estrogen and aromatase,  (and the  role of prolactin and a lack of progesterone) in cancer are well documented and so are the stimulatory effects of the neuro-endocrine (nervous system/hormones) disruptors termed xenoestrogens, which mimic the action and excess of estrogen (Kim, Kurita, & Bulun, 2013) (Mungenast & Thalhammer, 2014). Estrogen and notably estradiol/E2 is often measured by a standard blood test, which remains as problematic as other blood tests such as TSH, which I have previously described. “ At first, it was assumed that the amount of the hormone in the blood corresponded to the effectiveness of that hormone. Whatever was in the blood was being delivered to the “target tissues.” But as the idea of measuring “protein bound iodine” (PBI) to determine thyroid function came into disrepute (because it never had a scientific basis at all), new ideas of measuring “active hormones” came into the marketplace, and currently the doctrine is that the “bound” hormones are inactive, and the active hormones are “free.” Ray Peat

In addition to the obvious production of estrogen in the reproductive tissues, it’s possible to increase estrogen conversion via aromatase, an enzyme which converts androgens such as testosterone to estrogen, is one of the other main factors. Adipose tissue is a prime location for increased aromatase activity.

Another problem with measuring hormones in the blood is that it rarely accounts for the intracellular accumulation of hormones. Estrogen in excess in the cell, promotes fluid retention, swelling and causes an increase in calcium. Measuring pituitary hormones and in particular prolactin (PRL) may give us a better indication of the relative excess of estrogen due to estrogens stimulatory effect on the anterior pituitary and PRL.

PRL excess is associated with issues such as breast cancer, prostate cancer, resistance to chemotherapy, infertility in both men and women, male reproductive health and galactorrhea (Sethi, Chanukya, & Nagesh, 2012) (Rousseau, Cossette, Grenier, & Martinoli, 2002). Treating PRL excess, particularly linked to the most common form of pituitary tumour (1:1000), the prolactinoma is often treated effectively by the dopamine agonists Bromocriptine or Cabergoline. However, it’s not beyond the realms of possibility that prevention and treatment of excess PRL production, be achieved with decreasing synthesis and exposure to estrogens both endogenous and from external sources.

Myopic thinking.

Modern medical thinking and analysis has led us to a reduced proposition when it comes to diseases like cancer. Cancer is essentially a metabolic disease, and the proposed respiratory defect, the idea of scientist Otto Warburg, is often replaced by the mechanistic thinking of the receptor theory of disease. Estrogen receptors are one of the main evaluations for assessing types of cancer but the very essence of the testing leads us to an increased myopic line of questioning, failing to ask the necessary questions that underlie a persons health status.

If a city is being evacuated, its railroad transportation system, will be quickly “saturated,” and the impatience of a million people waiting for a ride wont make much difference. But if they decide to leave on foot, by bicycle, boat or balloon, in all directions, they can leave as soon as they want to, any number of people can leave at approximately the same time. A non-specific system is ‘saturable,” a nonspecific system isn’t saturable. The idea of a cellular “receptor” is essentially that of a “specific” transport and/or response system. Specific transporters or receptors have been proposed for almost everything in biology - for very interesting ideological reasons-- and the result has been that the nonspecific processes are ignored and supressed. Ray Peat

Solutions.

Sometimes there are minimal opportunities for people to change their environment. Perhaps creating more solutions to enable better conversations with the environment, is the most pragmatic solution available?

Maintaining the body’s production of energy by optimising thyroid production, suppression of TSH (thyroid stimulating hormone) and lowering of other stress hormones like ACTH, intake of carbohydrates, protein and adequate light can support the necessary energy needed for the liver and digestive system to enhance detoxification of estrogen and estrogen mimickers.  A sluggish, fatty or hypothyroid state of the liver, makes it difficult for estrogen to be excreted. In states of constipation, beta glucaronidase converts inactive estrogen to the active form.  Keeping both estrogen and aromatase low seems a step in the right direction.

Foods also have the capacity to enhance estrogen synthesis. Mushrooms have shown to be a potent inhibitor of aromatase enzymes and have the capacity to lower the systemic production of estrogen (Grube, Eng, Kao, Kwon, & Chen, 2001). However it’s important to note that mushrooms need substantial cooking to reduce the liver toxins present.

“The hydrazine-containing toxins that Toth and others wrote about are destroyed by heat. Since extracts made by boiling the mushrooms for three hours were very active, I think it's good to boil them from one to three hours.

If you want to know more about prepping mushrooms and soups, then check out the link below for The Nutrition Coach, who reminded me why mushrooms for lowering estrogen and a great source of protein will be helpful when consumed regularly.

  

References: 

Grube, B. J., Eng, E. T., Kao, Y.-C., Kwon, A., & Chen, S. (2001). White Button Mushroom Phytochemicals Inhibit Aromatase Activity and Breast Cancer Cell Proliferation. J. Nutr., 131(12), 3288–3293. Retrieved from http://jn.nutrition.org/content/131/12/3288

Kim, J. J., Kurita, T., & Bulun, S. E. (2013). Progesterone action in endometrial cancer, endometriosis, uterine fibroids, and breast cancer. Endocrine Reviews. http://doi.org/10.1210/er.2012-1043

Mungenast, F., & Thalhammer, T. (2014). Estrogen biosynthesis and action in ovarian cancer. Frontiers in Endocrinology, 5(NOV). http://doi.org/10.3389/fendo.2014.00192

Rousseau, J., Cossette, L., Grenier, S., & Martinoli, M. G. (2002). Modulation of prolactin expression by xenoestrogens. Gen Comp Endocrinol, 126(2), 175–182. http://doi.org/10.1006/gcen.2002.7789\rS0016648002977890 [pii]

Sethi, B. K., Chanukya, G. V, & Nagesh, V. S. (2012). Prolactin and cancer: Has the orphan finally found a home? Indian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism. http://doi.org/10.4103/2230-8210.104038

http://raypeat.com/articles/articles/pdf/Estrogen-Receptors-what-do-they-explain.pdf

http://www.thenutritioncoach.com.au/anti-ageing/how-i-prep-mushrooms-and-why-its-worth-the-bother/#more-2595

 

Estrogen and Progesterone

For the general public there is often no real need to understand what hormones are or what they do, unless faced with specific problems related to them. As hormones are affected increasingly by our environment, which includes: Food, air, water, physical and psychological stress, it seems that a basic understanding of problematic hormones can be helpful for maintaining or improving health. Before I attempt to give a brief overview of a complex subject, here are a few terms to be aware of, mainly related to female function.

Follicular phase- first 14 days of cycle to ovulation and increased production of estrogen, primarily E1

LH- Luteal phase, last 14 days, corpus luteum, which increases progesterone

Progesterone- Hormone of gestation, bone formation, anti clotting concerned with cell differentiation.

E1-E2-E3 – Estrogen classifications of Estrone, Estradiol and Estriol. Estrogen promotes growth and becomes problematic in the face of increased cellular division and changes or mutations.

Xenoestrogens – synthetic estrogen like compounds found in plastics, contraceptives, fuel and industrial waste. These have the capacity to increase estrogen levels in men, compounding issues related to testosterone function.

Progestin- synthetic progesterone. Lacking in the benefits of natural progesterone and increases unwanted symptoms.

CYCLEovul

Estrogen’s primary role is one of growth. It is used to stimulate growth of tissue, especially so in the endometrium. During the follicular phase estradiol increases and just before ovulation starts to decrease. Progesterone’s protective effects are enhanced via increased production of the corpus luteum.

Problems with excess estrogen have increased due to changes in diet, increased exposure to environmental pollutants and other factors that are not offset by increased production of progesterone. Below are just some of the actions of both estrogen and progesterone.

Effects of Estrogen Effects of Progesterone
·      Breast stimulation·      Endometrial proliferation

·      Increased body fat

·      Salt/ fluid retention

·      Clotting

·      Depression

·      Headaches

·      Decreased libido

·      Impairment of blood sugar

·      Reduced oxygen

·      Risk of breast cancer

·      Osteoporosis

·      Decreased thyroid

·      Increases CV issues.

·      Anti tumour effects·      Supportive to fertility

·      Sedative effects

·      Improves blood sugar

·     Decreases  Ovarian cysts

·      and Menopausal flushing

·      Removal of facial hair

·      Decreased Menstrual cramping

·      Improved auto-immune

·      Hormonal balance

·      Anti -Stress

·     Decreased arthritis

·      Promotes sleep

·      Thickens hair on head

 

 

 

Balancing blood sugar levels, particularly an issue during pre-menses, can be achieved with Progesterone. Hypoglycaemia is often present (especially so when engaged in exercise, low carbohydrate or calorie consumption) and particularly when oxidative damage occurs to cellular function, oxygen use is decreased and therefore a reliance on glycolysis, a sugar using energy system, which creates an abundance of lactic acid, occurs. Elevated levels of lactic acid are problematic, not only to cellular function but are also inefficient means of energy production. It’s transportation and conversion back to glycogen requires much more energy than it produces. Progesterone protects against estrogen’s anti-oxygen effects.

Progesterone is non-toxic even at elevated levels, however anaesthesia and euphoria has been recorded, along with changes to the menstrual cycle which can be noted as mainly positive. Symptoms related to PMS have often disappeared and its use is recommended only between ovulation and menstruation. Estrogen/progesterone balance can be achieved by supplementation, however diet can help to facilitate the change and serve to maintain the gains achieved with progesterone supplementation. In many cases decreased thyroid allows for excess estrogen in the body, via mechanisms of decreased energy to detoxify, which include liver and digestion mechanisms. The reverse can also be true due to increased estrogen decreasing thyroid function

Excess stress can be the cause of decreased progesterone and increased estrogen's, increased cortisol and decreased thyroid. The use of adequate protein within the diet and carbohydrates will ensure that thyroid is provided efficiently. Daily sunshine helps to promote optimal progesterone conversion, in addition to supplementation and those who live in areas with less sunlight should also consider progesterone supplementation.

During pregnancy, progesterone production can be one hundred times more than the amount seen during the premenstrual phase. A lack of progesterone during pregnancy has been associated with toxaemia. Symptoms include high blood pressure, excessive weight gain, oedema (fluid retention) and protein loss in the urine. If excess progesterone is available, the mother will simply use it, therefore an excess of progesterone would be preferred to a deficit and the likelihood of toxaemia induced by too little progesterone. Progestins seem to make many unwanted symptoms much worse

It is clear that decreasing exposure to environmental pollutants is helpful to lowering xenoestrogenic load. Foods that contain natural phytoestrogens can also affect estrogen/progesterone balance and where symptoms exist decreasing foods such as uncooked brassica vegetables, soy, nuts and seeds would be helpful in attempting to restore balance.

References:

Dalton, K The Menstrual Cycle.

Lee, J. Natural Progesterone, Multiple roles of a Remarkable Hormone. BLL Publishing

Peat, R. Nutrition for Women.

Tonilo, P.G. Endogenous estrogens and breast cancer risk: the case for prospective cohort studies. Environ Health Perspect. 1997 Apr;105 Suppl 3:587-92.

Online references:

http://raypeat.com/articles/articles/progesterone-summaries.shtml

http://raypeat.com/articles/articles/estrogen-age-stress.shtml