endotoxin

Why fruit juice won’t give you cancer.

But it can protect you against it.

But it can protect you against it.

You may have noticed the carbohydrate fearing headline stating that - "One small glass of juice a day raises cancer risk, " yesterday. Do you know when you’ve been tangoed?

This is based upon the study by Chazelas et al (Chazelas et al 2019) and being used to justify the swathe of dogmatic headlines in the press.Apart from the study being based on food questionnaires (mean food log was 5.6 days over 5 years hardly conclusive) which are not reliable indicators of actual consumption, the authors suggest that the mechanisms that might drive the association are as follows.

1.    Excessive sugar consumption could contribute to obesity driven mechanisms. There's no doubt that excess carbohydrate, fat and protein contribute to obesity when an EXCESS of calories are consumed (and the other multifactorial issues associated with obesity.

2.    Sugar from juice contributes to increased glycaemic load and inflammation. This point doesn't add up because many fruit juices have a low glycaemic load, associated with anti- inflammatory responses (polyphenols, vitamin c, capacity to lower endotoxins, improve blood sugar regulation and cholesterol levels). Many grains have higher glycaemic loads and index than juices. So is this really a valid argument?

Of the 101, 000 or so participants the increased risk associated with sugary drinks was found in those who exercised less. In an important factor, if you combine over consumption and decreased activity. Another point that the authors suggest on sugary drinks is that additives to sweetened beverages like sodas could also contribute to risk. Indeed a valid point.

It starts with a hint of truth and a headline or meme tends to become written in folklore, the myth of the carbohydrate rich food churning out death in its path. These small, half or even quarter truths often disappear when you scratch beneath the surface. That’s why I actively encourage carbohydrate and specifically carbohydrate consumption in my programs. Even most people I have met rarely chug down large amounts of fruit juices in isolation and even if glycemic index\load were an issue, when you consume carbohydrate rich foods with proteins and fats, these concepts are somewhat irrelevant.

Orange juice (or any juices) is one of those foods that still seems to be getting a bad rap but many people who demean its nature often fail to look at the studies that have shown it to be protective. You might have heard...but the sugar levels or but it’s acidic. Just take a look at the tabloid’s permanent vilification of the simple juice drink, which is based on half-truths of small increased risk with limited data. To play devil’s advocate, there’s no doubting that some people with less money available have been seduced into purchasing more junk food. It’s cheap, it’s filling and it’s full of sugar, vegetable oils, preservatives, GMOs, fillers, emulsifiers, additives like flavouring, enhancers, gums and much more. Yet still, the sugar is the demon in this list. Not even the pollution that’s shown to increase cancer, heart diseases, diabetes and neurodegenerative diseases, it’s still sugar and even if you drink fruit juice, it’s the sugar that will kill you.

So, with that in mind let’s consider what a simple food like orange juice could do to hasten, I’m sorry I meant prevent neurological and metabolic decline. Let’s first add some context. It should be no surprise that if you just drink large amounts of juice on their own, without balancing their ability to enter the blood stream with fats and or proteins, it isn’t going to be as beneficial. This is also why throwing large amounts of sweetened fizzy drinks down one’s neck can be problematic. The Glycemic index becomes redundant when you add another food into the mix, therefore drinking fruit juices with fats and proteins helps to normalise blood sugar responses in isolation. So why orange juice? Here are just a couple of reasons

Lowering inflammation

Eating a variety of foods has the capacity to increase inflammatory and damaging agents like endotoxin. Endotoxin or lipopolysaccharides is well known to increase in high fat and carbohydrate meals, especially so when fibrous poorly digested foods are consumed. High fat diets also induce endotoxin, and this is well known to induce intestinal hyperpermeability or the more well-known leaky gut syndrome. Consumption of orange juice appears to significantly reduce the levels and effects of inflammation induced by endotoxin (Ghanim et al., 2010) . Unfortunately, many foods are often kept stable longer with additives like carrageenan and gums, which also promote increased endotoxin.

Attenuates metabolic dysfunction

 “ Despite media concern, daily orange juice consumption did not result in adverse metabolic effects, despite providing additional dietary sugars. Data from epidemiological and in vitro studies suggest that orange juice (OJ) may have a positive impact on lipid metabolism. “ (Simpson, Mendis, & Macdonald, 2016)

During times of stress, under eating or consuming foods low in carbohydrates the response is to liberate energy from stored fats in the form of triglycerides. As metabolism becomes compromised high levels of triglycerides are known to be present in blood sugar dysregulation. There’s much in the press to suggest that sugar from fruit juice consumption increases cardiac risk but there are many studies that suggest otherwise, with the observed effect being reduced triglycerides and cholesterol (Aptekmann & Cesar, 2013). The cardiac protective factors aren’t limited to orange juice alone, pomegranate and other juices also seem to offer similar results (Moazzen & Alizadeh, 2017)

Decreased carcinogen production

A very relevant and protective mechanism of orange juice (and others) and fruit peel consumption is the decreased risk of gastrointestinal cancers (Xu, Song, & Reed, 1993). Nitrates and nitrates are naturally occurring compounds found in a variety of foods. Nitrates are often used in preservatives and sodium nitrites are ubiquitous in preserved meats and have a significant relationship between cancers in many of the mucosal areas including the mouth, bowel and lungs.. Nitrates have been implicated in not just intestinal and stomach cancers but increasingly thyroid cancers (Hernández- Ramírez et al., 2009). This occurs through increases in N-nitroso compounds (NOC) which increase the capacity of cell mutation but there are extensive studies that show many classes of NOC inhibitors which include vitamin e and vitamin C that negate that risk.

Of course, for optimal effects, ensuring adequate protein and fats are consumed will always be beneficial. We’ve known that compromised blood sugar and insulin responses are rarely to do with consuming carbohydrates. Unless excessive eating and obesity are the association, there’s plenty more relevant relationships such as environmental pollutants and other stressors that show a clear effect on all aspects of metabolism and increased metabolic disease. Yet many people seem intent on shooting the messenger and vilifying protective carbohydrates such as fruit juice.

 

References: 

 1.    Aptekmann, N. P., & Cesar, T. B. (2013). Long-term orange juice consumption is associated with low LDL-cholesterol and apolipoprotein B in normal and moderately hypercholesterolemic subjects. Lipids in Health and Disease. https://doi.org/10.1186/1476-511X-12-119

2.   Chazelas Eloi, Srour Bernard, Desmetz Elisa, KesseGuyot Emmanuelle, Julia Chantal, Deschamps Valérie et al. Sugary drink consumption and risk of cancer: results from NutriNet-Santé prospective cohort BMJ2019; 366 :l2408

3.    Ghanim, H., Sia, C. L., Upadhyay, M., Korzeniewski, K., Viswanathan, P., Abuaysheh, S., … Dandona, P. (2010). Orange juice neutralizes the proinflammatory effect of a high-fat, high-carbohydrate meal and prevents endotoxin increase and toll-like receptor expression. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. https://doi.org/10.3945/ajcn.2009.28584

4.    Hernández-Ramírez, R. U., Galván-Portillo, M. V., Ward, M. H., Agudo, A., González, C. A., Oñate-Ocaña, L. F., … López-Carrillo, L. (2009). Dietary intake of polyphenols, nitrate and nitrite and gastric cancer risk in Mexico City. International Journal of Cancer. https://doi.org/10.1002/ijc.24454

5.    Moazzen, H., & Alizadeh, M. (2017). Effects of Pomegranate Juice on Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Patients with Metabolic Syndrome: a Double-Blinded, Randomized Crossover Controlled Trial. Plant Foods for Human Nutrition. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11130-017-0605-6

6.    Simpson, E. J., Mendis, B., & Macdonald, I. A. (2016). Orange juice consumption and its effect on blood lipid profile and indices of the metabolic syndrome; A randomised, controlled trial in an at-risk population. Food and Function. https://doi.org/10.1039/c6fo00039h

7.    Xu, G. P., Song, P. J., & Reed, P. I. (1993). Effects of fruit juices, processed vegetable juice, orange peel and green tea on endogenous formation of N-nitrosoproline in subjects from a high-risk area for gastric cancer in Moping County, China. European Journal of Cancer Prevention. https://doi.org/10.1097/00008469-199307000-00007

 

 

A Bioenergetic Approach to Restoring Gut Function: Part 2

Copy of Your bowel function might be an expression of your biology.jpg

Oops - A bioenergetic approach to restoring gut function part 1 was almost two years ago, my studies got the better of me, I’m sorry. Following on from the information of how to restore energy and digestion by simply removing foods that are difficult to digest, promote endotoxin, decrease energy and digestion. Replacing them with easily digested, protective nutrients can negate the need for expensive, reduced testing and a supplement list that causes you to rattle as you stroll down the street. Much like the decreased need for stool testing, I have rarely recommended a food allergy or sensitivity test for the same reason that I haven’t used a stool test for many years (or had the luxury of a nice cash kickback from the labs I used to use). Why? Because these tests show the body in a stressed, energy wasting state that is prone to inflammation and reacts with many foods like dairy. Is it the food? No. Could it be you? It’s possible.

Metchnikoff.png

It’s not the dairy it’s you

Elie Metchnikoff suggested over 100 years ago that as putrefaction within the bowel occurs, function and immunity is compromised

 

Many clients have rolled into the office clutching their food sensitivity tests in a file, with dozens of other tests. Red bars, yellow bars, all highlighting so called problem foods. During bouts of stress (pollution exposure, psychological, under eating etc, excessive exercise, poor sleep) the body is prone to decreasing available levels of organisational hormones such as thyroid and progesterone. Usually the adrenal glands have to pick up the slack and compensatory stress hormones such as cortisol, glucagon, adrenaline and activation of serotonin (not a hormone) which  suppress thyroid and progesterone are perpetuated. This often creates a high sodium (salt) and magnesium wasting state and poor digestive function that facilitates increased sensitivity via increased serotonin and histamine levels. This also increases demand for vitamin C for gut mucosa maintenance and adrenal responses.

If this state is perpetuated increases in endotoxin (the by-product of bacterial metabolism and degradation ) burden the digestive system, liver, and can damage the gastrointestinal lining. Endotoxin levels are also  increasing through airborne environmental pollutants such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons  from fossil fuel use and industry (Annamalai & Namasivayam, 2015), so it’s worth considering that some people in a high pollution area, with poor digestive function are at increased risk of presenting with food sensitivities. They get tested, part with their cash and told to cut out 20 foods that they eat on a regular basis. Problem solved? Well no, it’s an intervention that will have some success but it’s some distance of what the person really needs.

 To simplify some of the well-known digestive issues with two ends of the spectrum.

Your bowel function might be an expression of your biology.jpg

Restore function

Restore appropriate movement

Constipation – failure to go to poop daily, hard to pass.

 

IBS irritable bowel like issues. Loose often more than 3 times per day.

 

There’s plenty of reasons to link constipation with a low energy, functionally hypothyroid, subclinical or overt hypothyroid state (Lauritano et al., 2007) and increased bacterial overgrowth like SIBO or small intestinal bacterial overgrowth. The digestive system is energy and thyroid hormone dependant and restoring energy by supplying easily digested high energy foods can be a simple intervention with effective results.

Often when you dig into a person’s history, you might find that those with IBS like states often describe a period of constipation. It’s not impossible to suggest that sustained constipation will lead to increased endotoxin, serotonin and histamine that damages the bowel lining. When this environment is perpetuated by stress, poorly digested foods and low energy, the digestive system is maintained in a high stress state, sensitive and ready to reject any remotely objectionable substance. Any food can become problematic when the digestive system is over-burdened or sustains damage to enzyme producing structures in the villi and microvilli.

 If you follow the chart suggested in restoring gut function part 1, you should find yourself in a much improved state. If you need further improvement then the following factors have always worked well:

 

Constipation:

 Magnesium in forms such as chloride and glycinate or very useful for decreasing perceived stress and lowering the incidence of sensitivities and 400mgs to 1g is useful to experiment with and complements dietary changes suggested.

To restore bowel movement magnesium sulphate or Epsom salts will mobilise the digestive tract and I have found that clients if needed try half to a full teaspoon to grease the wheels.

Vitamin C is a great way of decreasing constipation. A few years back I would recommend a dose of 1-2 grams  but equally I feel adequate intake of orange juice will do a great job. The added benefit of orange juice (polyphenols) has been shown to decrease inflammation and endotoxin which is often present in both high fat and carbohydrate meals (Ghanim et al., 2010).

 

Cascara Sagrada If you need a good clear out to restart function then cascara is an extremely effective solution.


‘ An effective laxative (besides preventing inflammation) causes not only coordinated contraction of the smooth muscles of the intestine, but also adjusts secretions and absorption, so that an appropriate amount of fluid stays in the intestine, and the cells of the intestine don’t become water-logged.’ Ray Peat.

 

Caffeine seems a logical choice and the research on caffeine as a potent factor in the fight against cancer and neuro degenerative diseases such as dementia and Alzheimer’s disease is very positive. Coffee stimulates bowel function and like the suggestions above is useful to decrease the reabsorbed metabolites and toxins that may be instrumental in systemic inflammation. The aerobic/respiratory system is enhance and protected by coffee consumption, providing protection to the mitochondria (Eskelinen & Kivipelto, 2010).

 

Irritable bowel

Carrots I have posted about the power of grated carrot to reduce the irritated state many times and have seen some clients with over 20 years of IBS resolve with this simple addition. Carrots act as a natural antibiotic, lowering endotoxin and other bacterial end products (Babic, Nguyen‐the, Amiot, & Aubert, 1994) and bamboo shoots have the same effect. As increased bacterial issues stimulate endotoxin production the daily use of a carrot salad can be one of the simplest yet most effective tools that you can have to improve bowel function.

Bone broth, gelatin and glycine are also great for helping to support gastrointestinal mucosa, improve the brush border enzyme function and decrease the proinflammatory effects of eating tryptophan and iron rich muscle meats that can also irritate the bowel when excessive.

Mushrooms  when boiled also have a similar effect as the carrot by decreasing aromatase enzymes and estrogen  acting as a natural antibiotic.

I would challenge anyone who either has paid money for a food sensitivity test or who is thinking about it ,to simply try the suggestions set out in these two posts. Over the last few years I haven’t seen anyone who has failed to improve digestive function. Although sometimes other mechanisms involving hormones may need to be explored.

References:

Annamalai, J., & Namasivayam, V. (2015). Endocrine disrupting chemicals in the atmosphere: Their effects on humans and wildlife. Environment International. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2014.12.006

Babic, I., Nguyen‐the, C., Amiot, M. J., & Aubert, S. (1994). Antimicrobial activity of shredded carrot extracts on food‐borne bacteria and yeast. Journal of Applied Bacteriology. http://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2672.1994.tb01608.x

Eskelinen, M. H., & Kivipelto, M. (2010). Caffeine as a protective factor in dementia and Alzheimer’s disease. In Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease (Vol. 20). http://doi.org/10.3233/JAD-2010-1404

Ghanim, H., Sia, C. L., Upadhyay, M., Korzeniewski, K., Viswanathan, P., Abuaysheh, S., … Dandona, P. (2010). Orange juice neutralizes the proinflammatory effect of a high-fat, high-carbohydrate meal and prevents endotoxin increase and toll-like receptor expression. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. http://doi.org/10.3945/ajcn.2009.28584

Lauritano, E. C., Bilotta, A. L., Gabrielli, M., Scarpellini, E., Lupascu, A., Laginestra, A., … Gasbarrini, A. (2007). Association between hypothyroidism and small intestinal bacterial overgrowth. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 92(11), 4180–4184. http://doi.org/10.1210/jc.2007-0606

 Peat, R. http://raypeat.com/articles/articles/cascara-energy-cancer-fda-laxative-abuse.shtml

An energetic approach to restoring gut function: Part 1.

Let’s kick this blog off with a question as to whether or not an energetic approach to restoring  gut function is useful or should we rely on testing and supplements? Let me clarify, that I have had my fair share of success stories with a reduced and diagnostic approach to improving gut health. Just like I have also had my fair share of kickbacks from the laboratory for recommending their tests. At one point I was using nearly 200 stool tests per year and making a little cash on the side. Many of the tests worked in isolating some specific disturbance to their gut bacteria, presence of a parasite or elevation of putrefied fatty acids. A ‘cleansing’ diet was promoted and a few supplements for good measure created some short term change whilst the client was in my care. But here’s why the long-term approach to that type of assessment and treatment may not be the best response. A standard functional medicine approach  after spending quite a lot of cash on an integrated stool test is using the 4 R approach.

Remove (offending parties)- spend money on supplements

Restore function- spend money on supplements

Re-inoculate - spend money on nice expensive probiotics

Repair gut lining- spend money on supplements

Regurgitate. Ok the 5th one is mine but no supplements needed.

By taking this approach, an important question is not asked of the individual. Why is this person experiencing an overgrowth of bacteria/SIBO, parasitic infection, endotoxin overgrowth, inflammation and degradation of the bowel lining? I like to think that it is not because of the easy kickbacks FM practitioners are getting for the lab tests and supplements they recommend? So what is the persons level of biological energy and immune system function that allows their digestive system to get in such a state. We know there are some usual suspects. Food, stress or alcohol perhaps?

The typical gastrointestinal complaints people came to me with, were bloating, excess gas, constipation or irritated loose stools combined with poor energy. It was Ilya Mechnikov who originally stated that death starts in the bowel or colon and there’s’ certainly many degenerative and inflammatory conditions that appear at the last stop to poopy central. But is the bowel the main driver of this dysfunction? Many of the symptoms that I recalled earlier are also key symptoms of an energetic and perhaps a thyroid dysfunction. So instead of reaching for our drastic 4 R protocol with an expensive poo test lets consider the following.

 The likes of Broda Barnes and Ray Peat have highlighted how a lack of energy, either from a low or inappropriate food intake or a dysfunctional hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-thyroid axis can be evaluated by assessing body temperature and the combination of pulse. Additional information on Thyroid and TSH evaluation can be found here.

Most people are aware that when they get stressed or exercise, blood is shunted away from the digestive system to the periphery and other working tissues. Even the concept of high Adreno-corticotrophic hormone (ACTH), cortico releasing hormone (CRH) and adrenal production of cortisol is becoming common place in work and gym environments alike. These hormones suppress thyroid hormone and the energy compound ATP that provide energy for tissues.

It’s also well known that low energy states create tight painful muscles that are difficult to relax and one might be able to apply that line of thought to the smooth muscle tissues that regulate bowel contractility. Therefore a low energy state that does not allow for adequate energy production will not allow adequate digestion and bowel function to occur. Cold hands and feet can be a symptom of not eating enough carbohydrate and protein.

If the cold hands and feet, low body temperature, fatigue, constipation don’t resolve from eating energy rich meals that contain plenty of fruit and contains little of the foods that promote the bowel irritants histamine and serotonin (nuts, seeds, vegetable oils, grains, gluten free products, beans and pulses). Then, often factors that influence the hormones such as thyroid, estrogen and progesterone may need a deeper consideration.

I drafted a little flow chart that will be helpful for some quick strategies on what might be happening but what I would like to focus on the low energy state that might have its source from a food or hormone factor or perhaps both. Instead of using a strategy like the 4 R approach, these simple questions can help guide you to understanding whether it is the foods that you eat or an energetic factor that could be causing your digestive system to suffer. It's not a complete algorithm but it does offer some simple solutions that have helped plenty of people resolve digestion and energy issues.

Foot note: I haven't needed a stool test with a client for over 4 years now following this chart.

 

In part 2 I will elaborate on foods and basic supplements that can be used to resolve most long standing digestive issues and understanding other hormone actions that create digestive discord.

References:

Lokaj, J., & John, C. (2008). [Ilya Ilich Metchnikov and Paul Ehrlich: 1908 Nobel Prize winners for their research on immunity]. Epidemiologie, Mikrobiologie, Imunologie : Casopis Spolecnosti pro Epidemiologii a Mikrobiologii Ceské Lékarské Spolecnosti J.E. Purkyne, 57(4), 119–24. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19069024

Peat, R. (1997). From PMS to Menopause: Female Hormones in context.

Peat, R. (2006). Autonomic Systems. Retrieved from raypeat.com/articles/other/autonomic-systems.shtml

Why you really shouldn’t be giving up sugar in the New Year.

It’s that time of year again, the silly season is upon us and plenty of people using inaccurate words such as detox are thrown around like Christmas wrapping paper. For many, the New Year is associated with dietary restrictions, born out of a period of over consumption from the festivities. May of those decisions such as stopping sugar or in particular fruit, as part of the so-called ‘detox ‘ is probably one the poorer choices that people do during this period of fad dieting. So it’s time to put the record straight on how to detox, or more appropriately how to maintain detoxification processes efficiently.

Detoxification and its suggested three phases, like most of the processes in the body is energy/nutrient/hormone dependant. Therefore the ability to detoxify efficiently is regulated by the amount of energy available and influenced greatly by how well your hormones function. The thyroid gland for example, is key to maintaining energy and this means energy for the liver to function. Detoxification is just one of the many functions of the liver, which also include glucose production and storage and the maintenance of adequate cholesterol.

The CDR or cell danger response suggests an evolutionary response to insults that affect the human body (and in particular cellular function) from a variety of sources. These can include:

  • Viral
  • Bacteriological
  • Chemical
  • Parasites
  • Electromagnetic stress
  • Physical and psychological trauma.

The net effects of the CDR can be suggested as a protective mechanism that stiffens cell membranes, perhaps to protect other cells, a decrease in processing of many nutrients and other compounds such as metals, and a decrease in metabolism. Whether this down regulation of function is protective or a result of the damage inflicted remains to be answered. Increased oxidative stress to how the body’s cells function can decrease the ability to generate energy using oxygen. Cellular respiration (ability to use oxygen to provide energy) using oxygen and carbohydrate remains the most efficient system for generating energy. Increased stress decreases the ability to utilise carbohydrate as a fuel. Other compounding factors with the CDR are a change to the gut bacteria, which can increase the fermentation of carbohydrates. So called beneficial bacteria such as Lactobacilli can produce lactic acid that disrupts the cells of the digestive system and increase the amount of gut damaging endotoxin.

For many the over indulgence will increase factors such as endotoxin, making them feel low, irritable and poor energy and sleep. An increase to neuro- transmitters such as serotonin and histamine, will exacerbate these issues and decrease sleep quality. The New Years resolution brings about a restriction of calories and eating less, burdening the digestive system less. People often make the assumption (one of many) that cutting out sugar has caused this miracle change but it may simply be the decrease in food itself. Perhaps it’s the lack of calories and the increase in adrenaline, much like the runners high, which makes people feel great?

For some, the equation of increased movement with less calories that is often employed at this time of year will have a good effect. For many others, and in particular, those who have a cell damage response, that is being resolved, this equation seems to have little effect. The decrease in available energy, to a cell that struggles to maintain adequate energy output, will find the move more, eat less, scenario a challenge.

Ketogenic diets often have great short-term effects for weight loss. In the long term a ketogenic remains a stressed energy state requiring the need for more cortisol, a decrease in carbon dioxide (decreasing the amount of available oxygen for use) and a less efficient form of energy production. Those who have a large amount of weight to lose, potentially expose the metabolic system to increased stress by oxidising fatty acids.

The stressed body requires carbohydrate. Low blood sugar states require a balance of carbohydrate (with fat and protein), to maintain optimal detoxification you need carbohydrate. Unfortunately with the fear mongering on social media you can often observe the following.

  1. Sugar feeds and causes cancer.
  2. Sugar is addictive

Here’s the thing. There is not any scientific proof to validate those statements. The primary fuel for any cell is glucose, even in cancer cells, if sugar is not available, it will generate energy from protein. Otto Warburg’s research has often been misinterpreted to suit inaccurate memes. Damage to the respiratory function of the cell is often the source of mutagenic aspects of cellular/mitochondrial (energy producing cells) that potentiates the growth of cancer.

The sugar is addictive study; well if you look closely at the study you will see that sugar activates the same reward centre of the brain such as sex, exercise and receiving gifts. The science of addiction is beyond the scope of my expertise, however if you have someone that cannot regulate energetic processes that well, they may seek out adequate energy, with sources of easily processed carbohydrates. It would appear that insulin sensitivity becomes an issue when there is an excess of energy.

Are you eating too much? Or is it simply that you cannot process the energy available? Well, if you eating less and moving more but weight, energy, sleep, libido or emotional balance aren’t improving. Then you know which one it is.

I am not suggesting here is that you should over eat sugar and carbohydrates. Much like, I wouldn’t NUTRITIONsuggest overeating broccoli, or drinking too much water.

Either way removing the protective capacity of carbohydrates to create balance is probably not the way to go.

Are probiotics essential for optimal gut health?

Probiotics are often being recommended to deal with a variety of digestive health complaints today. I have been intrigued for many years of the role of the digestive system; it’s functions and ultimately how bacteria can contribute to improved or decreased health. Recently, the last two newsletters from Ray Peat PhD have quoted studies, where animals that were born into sterile environments had improved metabolic rates. He also alluded to the increased lifespan of animals with higher metabolic rate in his book, Generative Energy. Probiotics have been touted for many years to assist with optimal gut function but like many products these days have swiftly been elevated to cult status, with their miraculous, cure all capacity suggested by those that sell them. But what does the science say? A summary of The Cochrane database provides plenty of research that shows that probiotics do have a positive impact in the short term, decreasing acute diarrheal like symptoms; however it’s impact on issues such as IBS remain inconclusive and controversial.

The gut flora and microbial mass is suggested to weigh up to 7kgs, second only in weight to the skin as the largest mass found in the human body. There exist over four hundred different species of bacteria with a predominance of anaerobic bacteria found mostly in the lower bowel. The problem with anaerobic bacteria is that the by-product of these species is the production of lactic acid and other metabolites that are damaging to cellular function.

Bacteria are often classified as pathogenic or disease causing or ‘friendly’ whose role can assist in production of Vitamin K2, biotin and B vitamins amongst other compounds. Bacteria can also increase the production of nitric oxide and endotoxin ( a compound well known to disrupt the mucosal barrier and enzymatic process of the bowel) is known to increase it further. An intriguing question would be whether an increase of certain bacteria predominate when we have a lower intake of certain foods

It is clear that metabolites from all bacteria do pose a challenge to cellular function and certainly when there is an overgrowth or dysbiosis they produce increased compounds that can create health issues dependant on the host’s immune and metabolic status. Probiotics like other supplements are often recommended long term but even the so-called friendly bacteria have the capacity to cause metabolic disturbances. Some species of lactobacilli in excess, cause a condition called D-Lactate acidosis, which disrupts metabolism and has significant impact on mood, digestion and energy. I can recall a three-year-old client who presented with anger and constipation ( 1 bowel movement per week) whose mother thought she was doing the right thing by feeding plenty of fermented foods and yoghurts with natural bacteria. Within a week of removing these foods the issues had stopped.

Chis Masterjohn PhD suggests, ‘Not every fermented food is good for every person, and some people don't tolerate fermented foods well at all. I think this is largely mediated by the biogenic amine content.’

A common diagnosis clients have been told is one of fructose or carbohydrate malabsorption. When carbohydrate in the diet is high in the absence of a healthy bowel this may be an issue. However if Lactobacillus levels have not been checked, we cannot rule out the possibility of fermentation of carbohydrate due to the action of increased Lactobacilli.

E.E. Metchnikoff’s view that disease starts in the colon is a widely accepted statement. Reducing the amount of bacterial agents in the bowel and increasing protective factors such as decreased adrenalin and improved thyroid function can complete elevating the biological status of a person. A stressed digestive system that does fails to produce adequate stomach acid (Achlorhydria or hypochlorhydria) often increases the amount of bacteria in the lumen of the bowel. Partially undigested food accumulates and elevates lipopolysaccharides from increased endotoxin, damaging the bowel. An increase in adrenaline and decreased thyroid hormone can contribute to decreased stomach acid production via stress pathways. Helicobacter pylori, bacteria that buries into the stomach wall may also contribute to this issue.

High protein diets have the capacity to increase bacterial action in the bowel and a metabolite of tryptophan degradation is indole. This increases ammonia and is problematic to the function of the bowel. This is often the reason for practitioners often suggesting an alkalinising type of diet. Alkaline environments pose just as much a problem as acidic environments. To decrease the bacterial actions of tryptophan, increasing the amount of gelatin like substances may be more beneficial than trying to restrict protein. The amino acids glycine, arginine and proline, found in gelatin do not have the carcinogenic properties associated with tryptophan, which is high when consuming muscle meats alone. Metchnikoff's theory of putrefactive dysbiosis  would fit better here but fermentive dysbiosis of grains and carbohydrates is prevalent in the poor performing bowel also.

Whilst antibiotics have gotten a bad rep over the last twenty years there can still be much use for them especially when there are stubborn gastrointestinal infections. Antibiotics seems to also work well in reducing the impact of endotoxemia

Testing the bowel can be completed with a CDSA (comprehensive stool analysis) or to accurately assess metabolite an organic acid urine analysis. These tests often cost £250-400 and present a considerable expense to clients. I personally think these tests should be completed after you have tried to optimise the bowel with optimal foods that digest well and support hormonal function. A caveat to that would be, when a client presents with parasitic infections or autoimmune type systems that may need further investigation

To summarise, I think probiotics can be useful in the short term to people with acute problems, primarily due to restricting proliferation of problematic bacteria but in many cases long term use is unwarranted and may even contribute to health issues.

References:

 

  1. Lord, R.S and Bralley, J.A. Laboratory Evaluations for Integrative and Functional Medicine. Metametrix Institute. 2nd 2008.
  2. Peat, R. Generative Energy. Restoring the Wholeness of Life. 1994.
  3. Chris Masterjohns Blog http://blog.cholesterol-and-health.com/2015/08/weighing-in-on-fermented-cod-liver-oil.html
  4. .http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/14651858.CD003048.pub3/abstract;jsessionid=5315A28A4390280DD5D4257508AD7AC0.f04t02
  5. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/enhanced/doi/10.1002/14651858.CD005573.pub2
  6. Ray Peat Newsletters: Directing Epigenetic Adaptation/Imprinting and Aging

 

 

 

Calcium- Don't ditch the dairy.

Calcium - don’t ditch the dairy. Like every nutrient that we have consumed over the last millennia or ten, there are reasons why some foods appear more beneficial than others. Using poor tests like Igg4 sensitivity/allergy analysis many ‘experts’ have convinced us that one of our most potent foods is causing us more harm than good. I am on the bandwagon that as far as my food goes (meat and dairy) grass fed, free range and organic remain a better choice for all concerned. Hormesis can only take us so far when it comes to pesticide and pollutant exposure and the individuality of tolerance and adaptation remains a knife-edge for many.

Don't ditch the dairy

Without getting into the arguments of which type of cows produce what compounds. This topic is merely aimed at why people have issues with calcium uptake and is the problem really a dairy issue?

Many people who have had blood tests are often told to take extra calcium supplements in response to presenting with low serum calcium. However the issue of lowered calcium in the blood may have nothing to do with the amount of calcium that they are ingesting. Here are some potential mechanisms:

• Low levels of vitamin D: Vitamin D is a well-known nutrient/hormone like substance that allows for the adequate uptake of calcium into bones and teeth. amongst many other functions which include immune system function. (This synergistic relationship can be observed in reverse also) • High phosphorus/phosphate diet. In addition to the added phosphates to foods and crops. Current recommendations suggest increasing portions of grains, beans and peas, which not only contain phosphates but also contain phytates, which can block mineral uptake. Low magnesium is also an issue. • Increased estrogens and xenoestrogens that increase the stress response and cause calcium to leach from the bones into soft tissues. A decrease in available progesterone can decrease bone density. • Poor reabsorption factors such as low intake of vitamin K2 • An actual calcium deficiency from low calcium intake • Excessive exercise which can be due to inadequate calcium and poor carbon dioxide retention. • Inability to absorb calcium from the digestive tract, low stomach acid levels/hypochlorhydria and damage to villi/intestinal lining, which can be observed in celiac but increasingly with intestinal hyper-permeability, endotoxin and chemical induced damage. • Decreased blood albumin levels which bind calcium. Digestion and dehydration issues mainly. • Regulation of PTH or parathyroid hormone.

Osteoporosis is on the rise but its increasing prevalence is not due to low calcium intakes but due to many complex interactions, between stress, pollutants, low sunlight exposure, excessive exercise and nutrient levels. The common reductionist approach is to throw the same nutrient at the problem in larger amounts and hope that this so called ‘deficiency’ is corrected.

It's worth noting that elevated serotonin levels in the blood are responsible for bone less. An increase in serotonin  can be viewed with both a temporary spasticity of smooth muscles tissues and loose or watery stools. The role of serotonin is to increase evacuation of the bowel, mediated by an increase in its production from the entero chromaffin cells in the digestive tract, where some 95% of the bodies own supply is created. A diet high in nuts and seeds, which contain serotonin are likely to irritate the digestive tract. From an evolutionary survival perspective, this allows for seeds to be passed out from the bowel without being digested, ensuring plants survival. Increased aggression and irritability have been noted in elevated serotonin levels, which also correlates with a decrease in bone density. Ensuring adequate calcium in the diet during these times is therefore essential.

When phosphorus increases and there is a lack of vitamin D, PTH increases to balance out the need for increased calcium, which is taken from bones and teeth. In essence much of the calcification of arteries and soft tissues can be attributed to this situation. Some of the signs that can be observed with low calcium levels are:

• Muscle cramps • Nose bleeds • Soft fingernails • Frequent cold sores, rashes • High or low blood pressure • Irritability • Fevers with mild colds

Administering calcium supplements to those with calcium deficiency is much like talking over someone before they have a chance to speak. You only here there initial words but fail to here what they are truly saying.

Much of the marketing and sales of supplements these days are suggestive that our food does not give us the nutrients that we need and that we need to stay plugged in to the rattle of supplement bottles opening daily. When in fact if we just strive to improve digestion and cofactor optimisation this simply isn’t the case. In the case of dairy, when we flippantly talk about super foods, when you look at the nutrients provided from dairy, it is indeed a food with plenty to say for itself, particularly in the situations of growth, stability and anti-stress.

References:

1. Christodoulou, S. , Goula, T., Ververidis, A., and Drosos, G. Vitamin D and Bone Disease. Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 396541, http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/396541 2. Weatherby, D. Blood Chemistry Analysis. Bear Mountain Publishing. 2002.

Online:

http://raypeat.com/articles/articles/phosphate-activation-aging.shtml