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Body temperature and health

Most people are so confused as to what constitutes good health these days and when they turn up to my office in low metabolic states with digestion, sleep, energy, mood and other issues. One of the first things that they say is that they eat really healthily. If you throw into the melting pot the obsession with the keto diet, chronic calorific restriction (CR) or other modalities, those short term gains have turned into long term deficits. I’ve long opined that health in general terms can be defined by:


·      Good energy

·      Good Digestion 2-3 bowel movements per day

·      Restorative sleep

·      Balanced mood free of depression or anxiety

·      Desire for life, motivation, hobbies and interests

·      Healthy libido

·      Absence of pain

Humans are endotherms that regulate their temperature at 37 degrees centigrade.jpg

What does your body temperature suggest about your health?

Get cold…read on

I’ll also add to that list a warm body and the ability to generate efficient energy,  a phrase biologists might use is a state of negative entropy. Entropy is a state associated with decay and disorder and as entropy increases, equilibrium is achieved - where a state of no energy in and no energy out or death of a living system occurs. The basis for life and metabolism is governed by the enzymes. Enzymes function well in an appropriate temperature and in a medium that is neither too acidic nor too alkaline. Mammals and specifically humans are endotherms that regulate their temperature in  tight range at approximately 37 degrees Centigrade (C) or 98.6 Fahrenheit (Bicego, Barros, & Branco, 2007). The central compartment theory of temperature  suggests that the head and the core should maintain a relatively stable temperature, due to the rich vascular supply and that the periphery may vary some 2-4 C.  

In a recent study that I conducted I suggested that the peripheral and core temperatures should remain at a similar level of about 37 C . The suggestion that a decreased body temperature recorded in the head, might be the last place that you would see a reduction due to the large quantities of glucose that the brain uses to maintain function. It’s possible to suggest that the slowing of function in low energy and hypothyroid states might be observed initially in the trunk or core. The well documented symptoms of constipation, decreased heart rate, slowed contraction relaxation of the heart and arteries and reduced peripheral relaxation of tendons (Achilles tendon reflex) might appear in the trunk and peripherally due to the preferential oxidation of glucose initially. Due to the vast systemic implications of low thyroid function, many different paths of decreased function might occur, dependant on nutrition, environmental stimulus and other stressors. In my study I didn’t find this but what I did find is strong linear correlations between low body temperature in both the mouth and armpit, multiple low thyroid symptoms (mean 6.8 per subject) and yet normal blood values.

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Thyroid hormone affects all aspects of biology


There are many factors that can decrease body temperature such as CR, fasting, estrogen, stress, pollution, over exercise and more. CR has been suggested as a mechanism for maintaining longevity but studies lack any conclusive evidence (Carrillo & Flouris, 2011) and a theory that a cold body, decreases metabolism, oxidation and damage therefore preserving tissues. Another emergent theory and results show in rodent studies, that mammals with a high energy intake, high metabolism and organised biology can increase life span (John R. Speakman et al., 2004) (J. R. Speakman, 2005). Think about this for a minute:

Calorific restriction makes the body cold, decreases metabolic rate  (via inhibition of thyroid hormone) and disorganisation of tissues. Entropy State

Adequate energy, maintains body temperature and organises tissues to function at their best. Negative entropy state.

From an evolutionary perspective fasting due to lack of food was a necessity. Fasting these days could be a useful tool, if you were prone to constant overeating but if your system lacks the flexibility to do so problems can occur. That’s not to say that calorie restriction for weight loss isn’t helpful but sustained CR in a system that doesn’t respond well might be counterproductive. Pollution has increased at a phenomenal rate clearly affecting physiology and hormones (Gore et al., 2015). Does it make sense that a so called detox diet, low in calories, protein, carbohydrates can enhance the function of detoxification, when liver function is energy and thyroid dependant? Skipping breakfast alone in some is associated with increased cortisol, glucagon and metabolic inflexibility (Jakubowicz, Wainstein, Ahren, et al., 2015) (Jakubowicz, Wainstein, Ahrén, et al., 2015). These factors can also decrease the mitochondrial uncoupling proteins which are responsible for increased body temperature.

Ageing is also associated with decreased metabolic rate, colder bodies and accepted increases in thyroid hormone stimulating values (TSH) (Laurberg, Andersen, Pedersen, & Carlé, 2005) . If symptoms of failing biology are present with isolated thyroid symptoms such as increased cholesterol,  , high blood pressure and sugar, cardiovascular issues and even cancer the acceptance of TSH and other thyroid hormone analysis to accurately predict hypothyroidism should be considered. Body temperature and metabolic rate was reliably used in the last century to diagnose hypothyroidism with qualitative analysis of symptoms and symptoms resolved with thyroid hormone treatment (Barnes, 1942) (McGavack, Lange, & Schwimmer, 1945) (Peat, 1999). Whilst thyroid is useful for restoring function, food and other factors can be used to restore and maintain function (previous blog on maintaining the aerobic system)

Certain nuances exist in temperature regulation that are dependant on acute or chronic exposure to stressors and a slowing down of the system through  a functionally, subclinical or overt hypothyroid state. In short term fasting, TSH is initially raised then decreases, negating thyroid blood tests. In the same manner the time frame of any stressor can dictate whether short or long term compensations of  the sympathetic adrenergic system is supporting the system. In well established feedback mechanism it’s known that as TSH increases so does cortisol and as body temperature approaches hypothermic levels (around 35C) cortisol, adrenaline and noradrenaline can increase body temperature as a protective response.

In a world where excess environmental and social stressors are ever increasing - it might make sense to maintain an efficient, organised warm body rather than reducing its function and heat.




Barnes, B. (1942). Basal temperature versus basal metabolism. Journal of the American Medical Association, 119(14), 1072–1074.

Bicego, K. C., Barros, R. C. H., & Branco, L. G. S. (2007). Physiology of temperature regulation: Comparative aspects. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology - A Molecular and Integrative Physiology.

Carrillo, A. E., & Flouris, A. D. (2011). Caloric restriction and longevity: Effects of reduced body temperature. Ageing Research Reviews.

Gore, A. C., Chappell, V. A., Fenton, S. E., Flaws, J. A., Nadal, A., Prins, G. S., … Zoeller, R. T. (2015). Executive Summary to EDC-2: The Endocrine Society’s second Scientific Statement on endocrine-disrupting chemicals. Endocrine Reviews.

Jakubowicz, D., Wainstein, J., Ahrén, B., Bar-Dayan, Y., Landau, Z., Rabinovitz, H. R., & Froy, O. (2015). High-energy breakfast with low-energy dinner decreases overall daily hyperglycaemia in type 2 diabetic patients: a randomised clinical trial. Diabetologia, 58(5), 912–919.

Jakubowicz, D., Wainstein, J., Ahren, B., Landau, Z., Bar-Dayan, Y., & Froy, O. (2015). Fasting until noon triggers increased postprandial hyperglycemia and impaired insulin response after lunch and dinner in individuals with type 2 Diabetes: A randomized clinical trial. Diabetes Care, 38(10), 1820–1826.

Laurberg, P., Andersen, S., Pedersen, I. B., & Carlé, A. (2005). Hypothyroidism in the elderly: Pathophysiology, diagnosis and treatment. Drugs and Aging.

McGavack, T. H., Lange, K., & Schwimmer, D. (1945). Management of the myxedematous patient with symptoms of cardiovascular disease. American Heart Journal.

Peat, R. (1999). Thyroid Therapies, Confusion and Fraud. Retrieved from

Speakman, J. R. (2005). Body size, energy metabolism and lifespan. Journal of Experimental Biology.

Speakman, J. R., Talbot, D. A., Selman, C., Snart, S., McLaren, J. S., Redman, P., … Brand, M. D. (2004). Uncoupled and surviving: Individual mice with high metabolism have greater mitochondrial uncoupling and live longer. Aging Cell.


Estrogen and aromatase - Keeping the wolves from the door.

Estrogen and aromatase,  (and the  role of prolactin and a lack of progesterone) in cancer are well documented and so are the stimulatory effects of the neuro-endocrine (nervous system/hormones) disruptors termed xenoestrogens, which mimic the action and excess of estrogen (Kim, Kurita, & Bulun, 2013) (Mungenast & Thalhammer, 2014). Estrogen and notably estradiol/E2 is often measured by a standard blood test, which remains as problematic as other blood tests such as TSH, which I have previously described. “ At first, it was assumed that the amount of the hormone in the blood corresponded to the effectiveness of that hormone. Whatever was in the blood was being delivered to the “target tissues.” But as the idea of measuring “protein bound iodine” (PBI) to determine thyroid function came into disrepute (because it never had a scientific basis at all), new ideas of measuring “active hormones” came into the marketplace, and currently the doctrine is that the “bound” hormones are inactive, and the active hormones are “free.” Ray Peat

In addition to the obvious production of estrogen in the reproductive tissues, it’s possible to increase estrogen conversion via aromatase, an enzyme which converts androgens such as testosterone to estrogen, is one of the other main factors. Adipose tissue is a prime location for increased aromatase activity.

Another problem with measuring hormones in the blood is that it rarely accounts for the intracellular accumulation of hormones. Estrogen in excess in the cell, promotes fluid retention, swelling and causes an increase in calcium. Measuring pituitary hormones and in particular prolactin (PRL) may give us a better indication of the relative excess of estrogen due to estrogens stimulatory effect on the anterior pituitary and PRL.

PRL excess is associated with issues such as breast cancer, prostate cancer, resistance to chemotherapy, infertility in both men and women, male reproductive health and galactorrhea (Sethi, Chanukya, & Nagesh, 2012) (Rousseau, Cossette, Grenier, & Martinoli, 2002). Treating PRL excess, particularly linked to the most common form of pituitary tumour (1:1000), the prolactinoma is often treated effectively by the dopamine agonists Bromocriptine or Cabergoline. However, it’s not beyond the realms of possibility that prevention and treatment of excess PRL production, be achieved with decreasing synthesis and exposure to estrogens both endogenous and from external sources.

Myopic thinking.

Modern medical thinking and analysis has led us to a reduced proposition when it comes to diseases like cancer. Cancer is essentially a metabolic disease, and the proposed respiratory defect, the idea of scientist Otto Warburg, is often replaced by the mechanistic thinking of the receptor theory of disease. Estrogen receptors are one of the main evaluations for assessing types of cancer but the very essence of the testing leads us to an increased myopic line of questioning, failing to ask the necessary questions that underlie a persons health status.

If a city is being evacuated, its railroad transportation system, will be quickly “saturated,” and the impatience of a million people waiting for a ride wont make much difference. But if they decide to leave on foot, by bicycle, boat or balloon, in all directions, they can leave as soon as they want to, any number of people can leave at approximately the same time. A non-specific system is ‘saturable,” a nonspecific system isn’t saturable. The idea of a cellular “receptor” is essentially that of a “specific” transport and/or response system. Specific transporters or receptors have been proposed for almost everything in biology - for very interesting ideological reasons-- and the result has been that the nonspecific processes are ignored and supressed. Ray Peat


Sometimes there are minimal opportunities for people to change their environment. Perhaps creating more solutions to enable better conversations with the environment, is the most pragmatic solution available?

Maintaining the body’s production of energy by optimising thyroid production, suppression of TSH (thyroid stimulating hormone) and lowering of other stress hormones like ACTH, intake of carbohydrates, protein and adequate light can support the necessary energy needed for the liver and digestive system to enhance detoxification of estrogen and estrogen mimickers.  A sluggish, fatty or hypothyroid state of the liver, makes it difficult for estrogen to be excreted. In states of constipation, beta glucaronidase converts inactive estrogen to the active form.  Keeping both estrogen and aromatase low seems a step in the right direction.

Foods also have the capacity to enhance estrogen synthesis. Mushrooms have shown to be a potent inhibitor of aromatase enzymes and have the capacity to lower the systemic production of estrogen (Grube, Eng, Kao, Kwon, & Chen, 2001). However it’s important to note that mushrooms need substantial cooking to reduce the liver toxins present.

“The hydrazine-containing toxins that Toth and others wrote about are destroyed by heat. Since extracts made by boiling the mushrooms for three hours were very active, I think it's good to boil them from one to three hours.

If you want to know more about prepping mushrooms and soups, then check out the link below for The Nutrition Coach, who reminded me why mushrooms for lowering estrogen and a great source of protein will be helpful when consumed regularly.



Grube, B. J., Eng, E. T., Kao, Y.-C., Kwon, A., & Chen, S. (2001). White Button Mushroom Phytochemicals Inhibit Aromatase Activity and Breast Cancer Cell Proliferation. J. Nutr., 131(12), 3288–3293. Retrieved from

Kim, J. J., Kurita, T., & Bulun, S. E. (2013). Progesterone action in endometrial cancer, endometriosis, uterine fibroids, and breast cancer. Endocrine Reviews.

Mungenast, F., & Thalhammer, T. (2014). Estrogen biosynthesis and action in ovarian cancer. Frontiers in Endocrinology, 5(NOV).

Rousseau, J., Cossette, L., Grenier, S., & Martinoli, M. G. (2002). Modulation of prolactin expression by xenoestrogens. Gen Comp Endocrinol, 126(2), 175–182.\rS0016648002977890 [pii]

Sethi, B. K., Chanukya, G. V, & Nagesh, V. S. (2012). Prolactin and cancer: Has the orphan finally found a home? Indian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism.


Are you using nature to regenerate?

The more clients that I see, I realise that some are very in touch with their bodies and some have no idea what is going on with it. The same rationale can be applied to those who feel the immediate value of being immersed in nature and others who are blissfully unaware of the subject matter. I often remember the change that my body used to experience as I drove out of London towards the Yorkshire Dales; as I edged past the M25 into the countryside and the journey terminated in a swathe of greenery and granite rock, the stress meter had dialled down to a zero. OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA

So why is nature important to human body? The escalation of urbanised environments is ensuring that humans are packed into industrialised, colour lacking, banal developments, that do little to stimulate the eye and increased tension with hustle and close knit streets that people rush to and from work. This dense packing of people also accumulates a large amount of industrial pollutants, be it Benzene from car fuel, Wi-Fi (of which there is an increasing amount of literature to support it’s negative effects to hormone and cellular function) and many other factors that test the body to its limits.

There is increasing research that suggests that urbanisation is a prominent factor in rumination/negative thinking and decreasing mental health. To deal with managing aspects of mental health, exercise is often touted to be helpful as a distraction hypothesis and I don’t dispute the effectiveness of exercise training to help in this situation. A distraction is positive and exercising is essential for good health. However, how many people actually use, quiet appreciation in exercise to regenerate? We often so concerned with pushing ourselves in professional life that exercise often becomes wrapped up in the same goal setting schedules that people religiously stick to. Walking, boating, hiking and taking time to appreciate nature, take in the colours, slowly breathe in the less polluted air, listen to the birds sing, or simply sit on the beach and absorb the endless horizon of water. To often we don’t stop to take in these natural beauties as we are trying to beat those personal bests.

Studies are showing that walking for 90 minutes in a natural environment fares much better than walking in urban settings; The effects showing additional decreases in negative thinking and activity of the brain. I am a firm believer that running and cycling in built up areas may make you fitter but probably less healthier. Increased oxidation of pollutants in urbanised areas, contribute to health issues and mortality rates are on the rise. Training efficiently and smart would warrant that we should aim to exercise less in this manner. Walking in green spaces and utilising the stress decreasing mechanisms of nature, may have more impact to your health than running or cycling on by without appreciating the spaces surrounding you.

Life seems to be whizzing by faster than ever, isn’t it time we slowed down to appreciate it more? Train for strength, walk for health?